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Biology: Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

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35 Questions

What is the main characteristic that distinguishes Phylum Porifera from Phylum Cnidaria?

True tissues

What is the primary function of choanocytes in sponges?

Trapping food particles

What is the main characteristic that distinguishes the three main classes of sponges?

Material of the endoskeleton

What is the function of cnidoblasts in Phylum Cnidaria?

Capturing prey and defense

What type of symmetry do members of Phylum Cnidaria exhibit?

Radial symmetry

What is the unique feature of Phylum Ctenophora?

Bioradial symmetry and eight rows of cilia

What is the characteristic feature of the Bilateria clade, and how does it relate to the organization of sensory organs?

The characteristic feature of the Bilateria clade is bilateral symmetry, and it relates to the organization of sensory organs in that they are concentrated at the head region, exhibiting cephalization.

Describe the body shape and compression of Phylum Platyhelminthes, and what type of skeleton do they have?

Members of Phylum Platyhelminthes have a flattened body shape with dorsoventral compression, and they have a hydrostatic skeleton that relies on muscle cells, water pressure, and a tough cuticle.

What is the characteristic feature of the pseudocoelomate body cavity in Phylum Rotifera, and what is the function of the corona?

The characteristic feature of the pseudocoelomate body cavity in Phylum Rotifera is that it is a mesoderm-lined cavity between the ectoderm and endoderm, and the corona is a ciliated, band-like structure that surrounds the mouth.

What is the distinctive feature of the feeding structure in Phylum Brachiopoda, and what is the composition of their shells?

The distinctive feature of the feeding structure in Phylum Brachiopoda is a lophophore with cilia, and their shells are composed of calcium carbonate or chitin.

Describe the developmental stage and body features of Phylum Mollusca, and what is the function of the mantle?

The developmental stage of Phylum Mollusca is the trochophore larvae, and they have a soft, unsegmented body often protected by a shell, with a mantle that is a specialized epidermal tissue that secretes the shell.

What is the characteristic feature of the foot in Phylum Mollusca, and what is an example of its modified form?

The characteristic feature of the foot in Phylum Mollusca is that it is muscular and often divided into branches, and an example of its modified form is the arms of octopuses.

What is the characteristic feature of the body of Annelids, and what is its significance?

The characteristic feature of the body of Annelids is that it is divided into segments (serial homologs). This feature is significant because it allows for greater flexibility and specialization of different body parts.

What is a unique feature of earthworms, and how does it aid in their movement?

A unique feature of earthworms is the presence of setae (bristle-like extensions) on their body. These setae aid in their movement by providing traction and allowing them to push through the soil.

What is a unique feature of leeches, and how does it help them feed on their hosts?

A unique feature of leeches is that they secrete an anesthetic-like substance in their saliva. This helps them feed on their hosts by making it impossible for the host to feel the leech's attachment.

What is the difference between Polychaeta and Oligochaeta, and what is the significance of this difference?

Polychaeta have many setae (bristles) on their lateral sides, whereas Oligochaeta have fewer setae. This difference is significant because it distinguishes between different classes of annelids.

How do earthworms reproduce asexually, and what is the result of this process?

Earthworms can reproduce asexually by cutting them in a specific location, allowing each broken part to grow into a new worm. This process results in the formation of two new worms from one.

What is a unique feature of Australian earthworms, and how does it compare to earthworms found in North America?

Australian earthworms can grow up to 9 feet (2.7 meters) in length, which is larger than those found in North America. This unique feature sets them apart from other earthworm species.

What is the characteristic feature of the body of nematodes, and how does it aid in their movement?

Nematodes have a non-segmented, thread-like body, which allows for flexibility and ease of movement through tight spaces.

What is the function of the exoskeleton in arthropods, and how does it relate to muscle attachment?

The exoskeleton provides protection and support to the arthropod, serving as a place for muscle attachment, allowing for movement and flexibility.

What is unique about the digestive tract of nematodes, and how does it relate to their body structure?

The digestive tract of nematodes is a tube within a tube, with the gut inside a larger cylinder, which is possible due to their specialized body structure with a muscular layer and a pseudo-coelom.

Why are nematodes considered the largest number of animals on earth, and where can they be commonly found?

Nematodes are considered the largest number of animals on earth because they are microscopic and can be found in large numbers in soil, with a cubic centimeter of soil containing thousands of these worms.

What is the significance of pinworms among the human population, and why are they more prevalent in elementary school-aged children?

Pinworms are the most common parasite in the United States, infecting up to 18% of the population in any given year, particularly among elementary school-aged children.

What is the characteristic feature of the body cavity of nematodes, and how does it relate to their embryonic development?

Nematodes have a pseudocoelom, a cavity lined by the endoderm and mesoderm, which is a characteristic feature of their body cavity and relates to their embryonic development.

What is the primary function of ecdysis in arthropods, and how does it facilitate their growth and development?

Ecdysis is a process of shedding and replacing their exoskeleton, allowing arthropods to grow and develop by providing a larger outer covering.

What characteristic do arthropods share with nematodes, and what is its significance in their development?

Both arthropods and nematodes practice ecdysis, allowing them to grow and develop by shedding and replacing their outer covering.

What is the significance of arthropods having a true coelom, and how does it differ from other animal groups?

A true coelom is a fluid-filled cavity within the body, providing support and buoyancy, and distinguishing arthropods from other animal groups such as nematodes, which have a pseudocoelom.

What is the significance of sensory organs in arthropods, and how do they contribute to their success?

Arthropods have an abundance of sensory organs, allowing them to perceive and respond to their environment, enhancing their ability to survive and thrive.

What is the significance of the exoskeleton in arthropods, and how does it differ from the hydrostatic skeleton of nematodes?

The exoskeleton of arthropods provides support and protection, whereas the hydrostatic skeleton of nematodes provides support and movement through muscle contraction.

What is the primary characteristic that distinguishes deuterostomes from other animal groups?

The blastopore becomes the anus, and the mouth forms second.

What is the unique feature of the circulatory system in echinoderms?

Water is pumped through vessels to extend and retract the feet.

What is the characteristic feature of the body cavity in echinoderms?

A fluid-filled cavity, lined with ciliated cells that move nutrients.

What is the characteristic feature of the nervous system in chordates?

A single dorsal nerve cord.

What is the primary characteristic that distinguishes echinoderms from chordates?

Radial symmetry versus bilateral symmetry.

What is the characteristic feature of the fertilization process in echinoderms?

External fertilization, releasing gametes into the water.

Study Notes

Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

  • Basal taxon, meaning they diverged earlier from other animal lineages
  • No tissues, just cell layers
  • Two types of pores: ostia (smaller openings) and osculum (larger opening)
  • No organs, just different types of cells (e.g., choanocytes, amoebocytes, pinacocytes)
  • Choanocytes have flagella that trap food particles, which are then engulfed by the cell through phagocytosis
  • Amoebocytes (also known as archaeocytes) have pseudopodia, help with digestion and nutrient distribution, and can become other cell types
  • Pinacocytes form the outer covering of the sponge
  • Endoskeleton made of spicules (sharp, spiny objects) secreted by amoebocytes
  • Classification of sponges is based on the material of the endoskeleton (e.g., calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, protein)
  • Three main classes of sponges: Calcarea (calcareous sponges), Demospongia (includes bath sponges), and Hexactinellida (glass sponges)

Phylum Cnidaria (Simple Animals)

  • Eu-metazoan, meaning they have true tissues
  • Radial symmetry
  • Gelatinous body with three main layers: ectodermis (outer), mesoglia (middle), and gastrodermis (inner)
  • Gastrovascular cavity is used for digestion and circulation
  • Incomplete or closed digestive system (one opening for mouth and anus)
  • Stinging cells called cnidoblasts contain nematocysts, used for capturing prey and defense
  • Hydrostatic skeleton helps with movement and support
  • Nerve net is a simple type of nerve arrangement, useful for regulating the hydrostatic skeleton
  • Two main body types: polyp (cylindrical) and medusa (bell-shaped)
  • Three main classes of cnidarians: Hydrozoa, Cubozoa, and Anthozoa
  • Other characteristics: diploblastic (two embryonic layers), radial symmetry, and simple nervous system

Other Phyla

  • Phylum Ctenophora (Comb Jellies) has bioradial symmetry and eight rows of cilia (comb-like structure)

Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

  • Basal taxon, meaning they diverged earlier from other animal lineages
  • Characterized by the absence of tissues, with only cell layers present
  • Two types of pores: ostia (smaller openings) and osculum (larger opening)
  • Lack of organs, with different types of cells performing specific functions
  • Choanocytes have flagella that trap food particles, which are then engulfed by the cell through phagocytosis
  • Amoebocytes (also known as archaeocytes) have pseudopodia, help with digestion and nutrient distribution, and can become other cell types
  • Pinacocytes form the outer covering of the sponge
  • Endoskeleton made of spicules (sharp, spiny objects) secreted by amoebocytes
  • Classification of sponges is based on the material of the endoskeleton (e.g., calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, protein)
  • Three main classes of sponges: Calcarea (calcareous sponges), Demospongia (includes bath sponges), and Hexactinellida (glass sponges)

Phylum Cnidaria (Simple Animals)

  • Eu-metazoan, meaning they have true tissues
  • Characterized by radial symmetry
  • Gelatinous body with three main layers: ectodermis (outer), mesoglia (middle), and gastrodermis (inner)
  • Gastrovascular cavity is used for digestion and circulation
  • Incomplete or closed digestive system (one opening for mouth and anus)
  • Stinging cells called cnidoblasts contain nematocysts, used for capturing prey and defense
  • Hydrostatic skeleton helps with movement and support
  • Nerve net is a simple type of nerve arrangement, useful for regulating the hydrostatic skeleton
  • Two main body types: polyp (cylindrical) and medusa (bell-shaped)
  • Three main classes of cnidarians: Hydrozoa, Cubozoa, and Anthozoa
  • Other characteristics: diploblastic (two embryonic layers), radial symmetry, and simple nervous system

Phylum Ctenophora (Comb Jellies)

  • Characterized by bioradial symmetry
  • Eight rows of cilia (comb-like structure) are present

Bilateria Clade

  • Characterized by bilateral symmetry and cephalization
  • Concentration of sensory organs in the head region

Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • Flattened body shape with dorsoventral compression
  • Free-living and parasitic species, including planarians and liver flukes
  • Three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  • Hydrostatic skeleton reliant on muscle cells, water pressure, and a tough cuticle
  • Negative phototaxis: move away from light

Classes within Phylum Platyhelminthes

  • Class Turbellaria: free-living flatworms
  • Class Monogenea: monogenean parasites
  • Class Trematoda: flukes, including liver flukes
  • Class Cestoda: tapeworms

Phylum Rotifera

  • Pseudocoelomates with a mesoderm-lined cavity
  • Complete digestive system with mouth and anus
  • Corona: ciliated, band-like structure surrounding the mouth
  • Most species exhibit parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction)

Phylum Brachiopoda

  • Feeding structure (lophophore) with cilia
  • Shell secretion: calcium carbonate or chitin
  • Marine animals

Phylum Mollusca

  • Developmental stage: trochophore larvae
  • Soft, unsegmented body often protected by a shell
  • Mantle: specialized epidermal tissue secreting the shell
  • Foot: muscular, often divided into branches (e.g., octopus arms)
  • Classes: Polyplacophora (chitons), Gastropoda (snails and slugs), Bivalvia (clams and mussels), Cephalopoda (squid and octopus)

Annelids

  • Body divided into segments (serial homologs)
  • Some have setae (bristle-like extensions), while others do not
  • Examples: earthworms, fireworms, Christmas tree worms (feather-duster worms)
  • True coelom and complete digestive system present
  • Cephalization: sensory organs concentrated around the head region

Annelid Classes

  • Polychaeta: "many bristles" with setae on their lateral sides
  • Oligochaeta: "few bristles" with fewer setae, as seen in earthworms

Earthworms

  • Familiar animals often used as bait in fishing
  • Species in North America are smaller than those found in Australia
  • Some Australian earthworms can grow up to 9 feet (2.7 meters) in length

Leeches

  • Class of annelids with parasitic and non-parasitic species
  • Some leeches attach to hosts and feed on their blood
  • Leeches secrete an anesthetic-like substance in their saliva

Clade Ecdysozoa

  • Most invertebrates belong to this clade due to their bilateral symmetry.
  • Two subgroups within Ecdysozoa are Nematodes and Arthropods.

Nematodes

  • They are roundworms with a thread-like body.
  • Most nematodes are microscopic and are the largest number of animals on earth.
  • They can be found in soil, with thousands of worms per cubic centimeter.
  • Nematodes are parasites of many organisms, including plants and humans.
  • Examples of nematodes include Ascaris and species that can affect the hearts of animals.

Characteristics of Nematodes

  • They have a non-segmented body.
  • They have a pseudocoelom, a cavity lined by the endoderm and mesoderm.
  • They have a tube-within-a-tube digestive tract.
  • They have a complete digestive system and a hydrostatic skeleton.
  • They have a specialized body structure with a muscular layer and a pseudo-coelom.

Arthropods

  • They have a tough exoskeleton that serves as a place for muscle attachment.
  • Their exoskeleton provides protection and support to the animal.
  • They have jointed appendages, allowing for flexibility and locomotion.
  • Examples of arthropods include crustaceans, arachnids, and insects.

Characteristics of Arthropods

  • They have a true coelom, a fluid-filled cavity within the body.
  • They have an abundance of sensory organs.
  • They use ecdysis, a process of shedding and replacing their exoskeleton, to grow.
  • Examples of arthropod subgroups include trilobites, chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans.

Key Facts

  • Both nematodes and arthropods practice ecdysis, a process of shedding and replacing their outer covering.
  • Ecdysis allows them to grow and develop.
  • Nematodes have a hydrostatic skeleton, while arthropods have an exoskeleton.

Deuterostomes

  • Deuterostomes are a group of animals that develop from an embryo where the blastopore becomes the anus, and the mouth forms second.
  • Characteristics of deuterostomes include having an internal skeleton, a water-based circulatory system, and radial symmetry.

Phylum Echinodermata

  • Echinodermata includes animals with spiny skin, such as sea stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.
  • Characteristics of echinoderms include:
    • Having spines used for protection and locomotion
    • Using two feet for locomotion
    • Having a unique circulatory system where water is pumped through vessels to extend and retract the feet
    • Having a coelom, a fluid-filled cavity, where organs develop and are lined with ciliated cells that move nutrients
    • Practicing external fertilization, releasing gametes into the water
    • Having prezygotic barriers such as gamete isolation

Classes of Echinodermata

  • Class Asteroidea: sea stars, characterized by five arms
  • Class Ophiuroidea: brittle stars, characterized by fragile and easily broken arms
  • Class Holothuroidea: sea cucumbers, characterized by their elongated body and use of water for locomotion
  • Class Crinoidea: sea lilies and feather stars, characterized by their long, slender arms and use of water for movement

Phylum Chordata

  • Chordata includes animals with bilateral symmetry, a true coelom, and a single dorsal nerve cord
  • Characteristics of chordates include:
    • Having a notochord, a stiff, flexible rod that provides support and protection for the dorsal nerve cord
    • Having a post-anal tail, at least during development
    • Having pharyngeal slits or pouches during embryonic development

Invertebrate Chordates

  • Phylum Tunicata: tunicates, characterized by their translucent appearance, and the presence of a notochord during embryonic development
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata: lancelets, characterized by their streamlined body, and the retention of the notochord throughout their adult life

Learn about the characteristics of phylum Porifera, including their cell structure, types of pores, and unique cellular features. Discover how they differ from other animal lineages.

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