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Grade 7 practice Question

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What is the primary function of the endocrine system?

To produce and regulate chemical substances called hormones

What is the term used to describe the constant state of the internal environment?

Homeostasis

What do hormones regulate in the body?

Growth, development, mood, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function

What is released in small amounts from glands and transported in the bloodstream to target organs or cells?

Hormones

Which gland is considered the master gland in the endocrine system?

Pituitary gland

What would happen if homeostasis fails?

The body could become ill or result in death

What is the primary function of hormones in the body?

To stabilize the body's internal environment

Which gland produces hormones that stimulate or suppress hormone secretions?

Hypothalamus

What is the result of an excess of thyroxine in the body?

Hyperactivity

What is the term for the body's automatic response to perceived threats?

Fight or flight response

What is the role of the pituitary gland in hormone regulation?

To act as a link between the hypothalamus and other endocrine glands

What would be the result of a break in the hormone regulation pathway?

A disorder or disease may occur

What is the primary purpose of responding to stimuli in humans?

To protect themselves from danger or for survival

What is the term used to describe a change in the environment?

Stimulus

What do human senses include?

Sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch

What happens when a stimulus is detected by a sensor?

The signal is converted into a response

Where can the signal from a sensor be processed?

In an area in between the sensor and the brain

What is the charge of a neutron?

No charge

What is the number of electrons in the first shell of an atom?

2

What is the relationship between the number of protons and electrons in an atom?

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons

What is the term for the arrangement of electrons in energy levels around the nucleus of an atom?

Shells

What is the atomic number of an atom equal to?

The number of protons in the nucleus

What is the atomic mass of an atom equal to?

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the second shell?

8

Calcium has an atomic number of 20. What is the electronic configuration of the element Calcium (Ca)?

2,8,10

What do the circles represent in a Dot & Cross diagram?

Shells

Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. What is the electronic configuration of the element Chlorine (Cl)?

2,8,7

What happens to the particles in a liquid as they are heated?

They move faster and escape from the surface of the liquid

What is a molecule?

Two or more atoms joined chemically

What is the term for the fundamental building block of all materials?

Atom

What happens to the particles in a gas as it is cooled?

They move slower and come closer together

What is the term for a pure substance that is made up of two or more different types of atoms chemically combined?

Compound

What occurs when the particles in a gas are cooled?

They move slower and come together

What is the fundamental building block of all materials?

Atom

What is the term for a pure substance that is made up of two or more different types of atoms chemically combined?

Compound

What is matter?

Any substance that has mass and volume

What are the three main states of matter on Earth?

Solid, Liquid, Gas

What is a characteristic of particles in a solid?

They hold their own shape

What happens to the shape of a liquid when it is poured into a container?

It takes the shape of the container

What determines the amount of space an object takes up?

The amount of matter in the object

What is the reason for a substance to change from one physical state to another?

Gain or loss of heat energy

What happens to the particles in a solid as the temperature increases?

They vibrate and expand

What is the state of matter where particles have the highest energy?

Gas

What happens to the particles in a liquid as they are cooled during freezing?

They move slower

What is the process where particles in a liquid escape to form a gas?

Evaporation

What is the state of matter where particles are held in a fixed position by the forces of attraction?

Solid

What do living objects have that detect forms of energy from the world around them?

Sensors

What is the term for the reaction of the organism to the stimulus?

Response

What happens when the internal environment of the body is not maintained at a constant state?

You could become ill or even die

What is the primary function of the endocrine glands?

To produce and regulate hormones

What is the relationship between the endocrine system and homeostasis?

The endocrine system regulates homeostasis

What is the term used to describe the process of maintaining a constant internal environment?

Homeostasis

What is the process where particles in a liquid escape to form a gas?

Evaporation

What happens to the particles in a gas as it is cooled?

They move slower

What is the result of particles in a liquid coming together to form a liquid droplet?

Condensation

What is necessary for a substance to change from one physical state to another?

A gain or loss of heat energy

What happens to the particles in a solid as the temperature increases?

They vibrate more rapidly but remain in a fixed position

What is the state of matter where particles have the highest energy?

Gas

What holds particles together in a liquid?

A small amount of attraction between particles

What happens to the particles in a liquid as they are cooled during freezing?

They slow down and lose energy

What determines the amount of space an object takes up?

Its volume

What are the three main states of matter on Earth?

Solid, Liquid, Gas

What is the term for the smallest particle that all matter is made of?

Atom

How many electrons can the first shell of an atom hold?

2

What is formed when two or more different types of atoms are bonded together?

Compound

What is the term for the arrangement of atoms in an element?

Element

What is the purpose of the atomic number of an element?

To determine the number of protons in the nucleus

What is the term for a group of atoms bonded together?

Molecule

What is the location of protons and neutrons in an atom?

In the nucleus

What is the maximum electron capacity of the 2nd shell?

8

What is the term for a substance made up of only one type of atom?

Element

What is the charge of an electron?

Negative

What is the term for a group of atoms bonded together?

Molecule

What determines the identity of an element?

Number of protons

What is the role of the endoplasmic reticulum in protein synthesis?

Folding and modification of proteins

What is the function of chloroplasts in plant cells?

Photosynthesis

What is the fundamental unit of life?

Cell

What is a common characteristic of plant and animal cells?

They contain membrane-bound organelles

What is the third principle of the cell theory?

All cells come from pre-existing cells

What is a way to classify living organisms?

Based on their cell structure

What is a characteristic of unicellular organisms?

They are single-celled organisms

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the third shell of an atom?

18

What is the principle that states that electrons occupy the lowest available energy level?

Aufbau Principle

What is the term used to describe the arrangement of electrons in an atom's electron shells?

Electron Configuration

What is the capacity of the first shell of an atom?

2

What is the term used to describe the energy levels that electrons occupy around the nucleus of an atom?

Electron Shells

What determines the element of an atom?

The number of protons in the nucleus

What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the third shell?

18

What determines the arrangement of elements in a periodic table?

Atomic number

Which part of an atom has a positive charge?

Proton

What is the outermost energy level of an atom called?

Electron shell

What is the term for the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus?

Mass number

Study Notes

Electron Shells

  • Electron shells are the energy levels that electrons occupy around the nucleus of an atom.
  • Each shell has a specific capacity, and electrons fill the lowest available energy level first.
  • The first shell has a capacity of 2 electrons, the second shell has a capacity of 8 electrons, and the third shell has a capacity of 18 electrons.
  • Electron shells are also referred to as energy levels or orbitals.

Electron Configuration

  • Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom's electron shells.
  • Electron configuration is typically written in a shorthand notation, with the number of electrons in each shell separated by commas.
  • The Aufbau principle states that electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
  • The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers.
  • Electron configuration is important in determining the chemical properties of an element, such as its reactivity and bonding behavior.
  • Electron configuration of an atom can be determined by using the periodic table and the following rules:
    • The first two columns of the periodic table (Groups 1 and 2) have a valence shell configuration of ns^1 or ns^2.
    • The next six columns (Groups 13 to 18) have a valence shell configuration of ns^2 np^1 to ns^2 np^6.
    • The transition metals (Groups 3 to 12) have a valence shell configuration of ns^1 to ns^2 (n-1)d^1 to (n-1)d^10.

Learn about electron shells, their capacities, and the arrangement of electrons in atoms, also known as electron configuration.

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