Biology Branches and Cell Biology Basics
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Biology Branches and Cell Biology Basics

Explore the different branches of biology, including botany, zoology, and microbiology, and delve into the basics of cell biology, including cell structure and function.

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@SofterEllipsis

Questions and Answers

What is the branch of biology that studies the interactions between organisms and their environment?

Ecology

What is the main function of the nucleus in a cell?

To store genetic information

What is the process by which organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce?

Natural Selection

What is the term for the community of living and non-living things interacting in an environment?

<p>Ecosystem</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the molecule that contains the genetic information in an organism?

<p>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process by which a new species emerges from an existing one?

<p>Speciation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Branches of Biology

  • Botany: study of plants
  • Zoology: study of animals
  • Microbiology: study of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi)
  • Ecology: study of interactions between organisms and their environment
  • Genetics: study of heredity and variation
  • Biochemistry: study of chemical processes in living organisms
  • Molecular Biology: study of structure and function of biomolecules (DNA, proteins, etc.)

Cell Biology

  • Cell: basic unit of life
  • Cell membrane: semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell
  • Cytoplasm: jelly-like substance inside the cell membrane
  • Nucleus: contains genetic material (DNA)
  • Organelles: specialized structures within the cell (mitochondria, ribosomes, etc.)

Genetics

  • DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): molecule that contains genetic information
  • Genes: segments of DNA that code for specific traits
  • Chromosomes: thread-like structures that carry genes
  • Traits: characteristics of an organism (eye color, height, etc.)
  • Heredity: passing of traits from parents to offspring

Evolution

  • Theory of Evolution: explains how species change over time
  • Natural Selection: process by which organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • Speciation: process by which a new species emerges from an existing one
  • Fossil Record: evidence of past life on Earth

Ecosystems

  • Ecosystem: community of living and non-living things interacting in an environment
  • Biotic factors: living components of an ecosystem (plants, animals, etc.)
  • Abiotic factors: non-living components of an ecosystem (water, sunlight, etc.)
  • Energy flow: energy is transferred from one organism to another through food chains and webs

Branches of Biology

  • Botany focuses on the study of plants
  • Zoology is concerned with the study of animals
  • Microbiology explores the world of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi
  • Ecology examines the interactions between organisms and their environment
  • Genetics delves into the study of heredity and variation
  • Biochemistry investigates the chemical processes in living organisms
  • Molecular Biology examines the structure and function of biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and others

Cell Biology

  • Cells are the basic units of life
  • Cell membranes are semi-permeable, surrounding the cell
  • Cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance inside the cell membrane
  • The nucleus contains genetic material in the form of DNA
  • Organelles are specialized structures within the cell, including mitochondria, ribosomes, and others

Genetics

  • DNA is a molecule that contains genetic information
  • Genes are segments of DNA that code for specific traits
  • Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry genes
  • Traits are characteristics of an organism, such as eye color, height, and others
  • Heredity refers to the passing of traits from parents to offspring

Evolution

  • The Theory of Evolution explains how species change over time
  • Natural Selection is the process by which organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce
  • Speciation is the process by which a new species emerges from an existing one
  • The Fossil Record provides evidence of past life on Earth

Ecosystems

  • An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things interacting in an environment
  • Biotic factors include living components of an ecosystem, such as plants, animals, and others
  • Abiotic factors include non-living components of an ecosystem, such as water, sunlight, and others
  • Energy flow occurs through food chains and webs, where energy is transferred from one organism to another

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