BIO 140 Chapter 26: Urinary System Functions

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18 Questions

What is one of the three main functions of the urinary system?


What is the role of erythropoietin in the synthesis function of the urinary system?

Stimulating RBC production

How does the urinary system regulate blood pressure?

By adjusting water retention and loss

What is the function of the process of reabsorption in the urinary system?

Reabsorbing necessary substances into the bloodstream

What is the role of the renin hormone in the regulation function of the urinary system?

Regulating blood pressure through the RAAS system

What is the end result of the excretion function of the urinary system?

The removal of waste products from the body

What is the outermost layer of the kidney?

Renal capsule

What is the function of the ureter?

To transport urine to the bladder

What is the functional unit of the kidney?


What is the region between the renal pyramids?

Renal column

What is the involuntary muscle layer of the urinary bladder?

Detrusor muscle

What is the artery that branches off into the interlobar arteries?

Renal artery

What is the type of epithelium present in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule?

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium with Microvilli

What is the function of the Juxtaglomerular Cells in the JG apparatus?

Secretion of Renin

What is the region after the Renal Corpuscle where the glomerulus puts the filtrate?

Capsular Space

What type of epithelium is present in the Loop of Henle?

Simple Squamous Epithelium

What is the function of the Pedicels in the Glomerulus?

Forming the Filtration Slits

What type of epithelium is present in the Distal Convoluted Tubule?

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium without Microvilli

Study Notes

Urinary System Functions

  • The urinary system has three main functions: excretion, regulation, and synthesis
  • Excretion functions: rid the body of organic wastes, excess nutrients, and aid the liver in detoxification
  • Regulation functions: maintain blood plasma levels, blood volume, blood pressure, and blood pH, and regulate electrolyte balance and H+ levels in the blood

Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume

  • The urinary system regulates blood pressure and blood volume by adjusting water retention and loss
  • Erythropoietin production helps regulate blood pressure
  • Renin hormone triggers the RAAS system to regulate blood pressure

Synthesis Functions

  • The urinary system synthesizes erythropoietin, a factor for RBC production
  • The system synthesizes calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, which increases calcium absorption from the GI tract

Mechanisms of Urinary System Functions

  • Filtration: filters waste out of the blood
  • Reabsorption: reabsorbs necessary substances from the filtrate back into the bloodstream
  • Secretion: secretes unnecessary substances from the bloodstream into the nephron
  • Excretion: removes waste from the body

Major Structures of the Urinary System

  • Kidneys: surrounded by perirenal fat and renal fascia, with a renal capsule and hilum
  • Ureter: transports urine to the bladder
  • Urinary bladder: has a trigone, urinary rugae, and detrusor muscles
  • Urethra: has different regions in males and females, with internal and external sphincters

Kidney Sectional Anatomy

  • Renal capsule: outermost fibrous covering
  • Cortex: outermost functional layer
  • Renal column: between renal pyramids, leads to calyxes
  • Medulla: innermost functional layer, consists of renal pyramids and renal columns
  • Renal pyramid: has a vertical osmotic gradient and vascularization

Renal Vasculature

  • Renal artery: divided into interlobar, arcuate, and interlobular arteries
  • Afferent arteriole: leads to the glomerulus
  • Efferent arteriole: leads to the peritubular capillary
  • Interlobular vein: leads to the renal vein

Nephron Structure and Function

  • Nephron: the structural and functional unit of the kidney
  • Consists of renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting duct
  • Types of nephrons: cortical and juxtamedullary
  • Renal corpuscle: holds the glomerulus and attaches to the PCT
  • Glomerulus: has a capillary network, fenestrated capillaries, and a lamina densa
  • Podocytes: have pedicels that form filtration slits

Proximal Convoluted Tubule and Loop of Henle

  • PCT: has simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli to increase absorption surface area
  • Loop of Henle: has simple squamous epithelium and an ascending limb
  • Distal convoluted tubule: has simple cuboidal epithelium without microvilli, and is influenced by adrenal cortex's corticosteroids

JG Apparatus and Collecting Duct

  • JG apparatus: consists of juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa cells
  • Important substances: renin and erythropoietin
  • Collecting duct: has simple cuboidal epithelium and connects to the renal pelvis

This quiz covers the three main functions of the urinary system, including excretion, regulation, and synthesis. It reviews the roles of the system in maintaining blood pressure, blood volume, and pH balance.

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