Atomic Structure Quiz

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6 Questions

What is the charge of a neutron?

No charge

What determines the element of an atom?

Number of protons

Which principle states that electrons occupy the lowest available energy level?

Aufbau Principle

What is the shape of S orbitals?

Spherical shape

What is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom?

Ionization energy

What are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons?

Isotopes

Study Notes

Atomic Structure

Subatomic Particles

  • Protons: positively charged, found in the nucleus, determine the element of an atom
  • Neutrons: no charge, found in the nucleus, contribute to the atomic mass
  • Electrons: negatively charged, found in energy levels around the nucleus, participate in chemical bonding

Atomic Nucleus

  • Consists of protons and neutrons
  • Located at the center of the atom
  • Has a positive charge due to protons

Electron Configuration

  • Energy Levels: also known as electron shells, can hold a specific number of electrons
  • Electron Spin: electrons can spin in two directions, resulting in paired or unpaired electrons
  • Aufbau Principle: electrons occupy the lowest available energy level
  • Pauli's Exclusion Principle: no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers

Electron Orbitals

  • S Orbitals: spherical shape, can hold up to 2 electrons
  • P Orbitals: dumbbell shape, can hold up to 6 electrons
  • D Orbitals: four-leaf clover shape, can hold up to 10 electrons
  • F Orbitals: complex shape, can hold up to 14 electrons

Atomic Radius and Ionization Energy

  • Atomic Radius: distance from the nucleus to the outermost electron
  • Ionization Energy: energy required to remove an electron from an atom

Isotopes and Ions

  • Isotopes: atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
  • Ions: atoms with a net positive or negative charge due to a gain or loss of electrons

Atomic Structure

Subatomic Particles

  • Protons have a positive charge and are found in the nucleus, determining the element of an atom.
  • Neutrons have no charge, are found in the nucleus, and contribute to the atomic mass.
  • Electrons are negatively charged, found in energy levels around the nucleus, and participate in chemical bonding.

Atomic Nucleus

  • The atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons.
  • It is located at the center of the atom.
  • The atomic nucleus has a positive charge due to protons.

Electron Configuration

  • Energy levels (electron shells) can hold a specific number of electrons.
  • Electrons can spin in two directions, resulting in paired or unpaired electrons.
  • The Aufbau Principle states that electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
  • Pauli's Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers.

Electron Orbitals

  • S Orbitals are spherical in shape and can hold up to 2 electrons.
  • P Orbitals are dumbbell-shaped and can hold up to 6 electrons.
  • D Orbitals have a four-leaf clover shape and can hold up to 10 electrons.
  • F Orbitals have a complex shape and can hold up to 14 electrons.

Atomic Radius and Ionization Energy

  • Atomic radius is the distance from the nucleus to the outermost electron.
  • Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom.

Isotopes and Ions

  • Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
  • Ions are atoms with a net positive or negative charge due to a gain or loss of electrons.

Test your understanding of atomic structure, including subatomic particles, atomic nucleus, and electron configuration.

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