Atherosclerosis and Aneurysms
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Atherosclerosis and Aneurysms

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@WondrousGrowth

Questions and Answers

Which age group has the highest incidence of myocardial infarction?

40-60 years

Which group is relatively protected against atherosclerosis and its consequences compared to age-matched men?

Premenopausal women

Which factors can predispose premenopausal women to atherosclerosis and its complications?

Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or severe hypertension

At what stage of life does the incidence of atherosclerosis-related diseases increase in women?

<p>After menopause</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women?

<p>Increases cardiovascular risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor is sufficient to induce atherosclerotic lesions in the absence of other risk factors?

<p>Hyperlipidemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lipoprotein is considered a major risk factor for atherosclerosis?

<p>Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group has a higher incidence of atherosclerosis-related diseases at older ages?

<p>Postmenopausal women</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lipids are dominant in plaques implicated in atherogenesis?

<p>Cholesterol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of lowering serum cholesterol on atherosclerosis?

<p>It causes regression of some plaques</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor increases the risk of ischemic heart disease by approximately 60% compared to normotensive populations?

<p>Hypertension</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of prolonged cigarette smoking on the death rate from ischemic heart disease?

<p>It increases the death rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition induces hypercholesterolemia and markedly increases the risk of atherosclerosis?

<p>Diabetes mellitus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the incidence of Myocardial Infraction in people with diabetes compared to normoglycemic individuals?

<p>Twice as high</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the response-to-injury hypothesis, what is the chronic inflammatory response of the arterial wall to?

<p>Endothelial injury</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the 4 key players in the response-to-injury hypothesis?

<p>Cardiac muscle cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the dominant lipids found in plaques implicated in atherogenesis?

<p>Cholesterol</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the result of endothelial cell injury in atherosclerosis?

<p>Increased leukocyte adhesion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of increased cholesterol on endothelial cell function?

<p>Impaired endothelial cell function</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis?

<p>Stimulates release of factors that recruits monocytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is true about fatty streaks in atherosclerosis?

<p>Do not cause significant flow disturbance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during the conversion of fatty streaks into mature atheromas?

<p>Activation of inflammatory cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which site is typically more severely affected by atherosclerosis compared to the coronary arteries?

<p>Infrarenal abdominal aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of plaque inflammation on collagen synthesis and degradation?

<p>Increase collagen degradation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lipids are dominant in plaques implicated in atherogenesis?

<p>Cholesterol esters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer(s) of the artery are involved in a true aneurysm?

<p>All three layers (intima, media, adventitia)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between a true aneurysm and a false (pseudoaneurysm)?

<p>True aneurysm involves all three layers of the artery, while false aneurysm involves only the intima</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does an arterial dissection occur?

<p>Blood gains entry to arterial wall through surface defect and pushes layers apart</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which arteries are typically spared in thoracic aortic aneurysms?

<p>Upper extremity arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for a defect in the vascular wall that leads to an extravascular hematoma communicating with the intravascular space?

<p>False aneurysm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are aneurysms?

<p>Dilations of the blood vessels or the heart</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which two factors are the most important causes of endothelial cell injury?

<p>Hemodynamic forces and hypercholesterolemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where do plaques tend to occur in hemodynamic forces?

<p>Branch points and ostia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of increased cholesterol on endothelial cell function?

<p>It impairs endothelial cell function</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do activated macrophages produce that drives LDL oxidation and smooth muscle cell proliferation?

<p>Toxic oxygen species</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are atherosclerotic sites typically more severe?

<p>Abdominal aorta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which syndrome is caused by mutations in fibrillin?

<p>Marfan syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common cause of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>Atherosclerosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gender is more commonly affected by Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>Men</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which group has a higher risk of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>Smokers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can cause ischemia of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the context of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>Atherosclerosis and hypertension</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture?

<p>Potential rupture leading to fatal hemorrhage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of connective tissue degradation in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>Proteolytic enzymes released from inflammatory infiltrates in atherosclerotic lesions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can obstruction of vessels branching off the aorta in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) lead to?

<p>Ischemia of kidneys, spinal cord, and GI tract</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a cause of inadequate/abnormal connective tissue synthesis, specifically with defective elastin and collagen synthesis?

<p>Mutations in TGF-β</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of collagen is defective in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

<p>Type III</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which enzyme degrades arterial connective tissue in the wall?

<p>Protease</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a potential complication of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a major risk factor for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the signs and symptoms of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which age group is more likely to develop Aortic Dissection?

<p>40-60 years with hypertension</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the morphology of Aortic Dissection?

<p>Intimal tear leading to blood-filled channel within aortic wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which artery may be compressed by blood dissecting upward from a tear with Aortic Dissection?

<p>Right carotid artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What symptoms may patients with Aortic Dissection present with?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can a massive amount of hemorrhage due to Aortic Dissection lead to?

<p>Hemopericardium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential complication of Aortic Dissection?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the clinical features of Aortic Dissection?

<p>Sudden onset of excruciating, tearing pain, radiating to back between scapulae</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of Aortic Dissection on the carotid artery?

<p>Compression by blood dissecting upward from a tear</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which layer of the artery is usually affected by Aortic Dissection?

<p>Media</p> Signup and view all the answers

What inhibits the propagation of dissecting hematoma in Aortic Dissection?

<p>Fibrosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the presence of substantial atherosclerosis or other causes of medial scarring, Aortic Dissection is...

<p>Unusual</p> Signup and view all the answers

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