Asthma Lecture: Inflammation and Antiinflammatories
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Asthma Lecture: Inflammation and Antiinflammatories

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Questions and Answers

What is the main function of IgE antibody in eosinophils and mast cells?

To detect the allergen

What is the primary effect of β2 agonists in asthma treatment?

Relaxing bronchial smooth muscle

What is the role of MHC Class II in asthma?

To present allergens to T cells

What is the late phase of asthma characterized by?

<p>Recruitment and activation of immune cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main effect of muscarinic receptor antagonists in asthma treatment?

<p>Symptomatic relief</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism of action of methylxanthines in asthma treatment?

<p>Inhibition of phosphodiesterase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following side effects is most likely to occur with oral steroid use?

<p>Oral candidiasis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism of action of sodium cromoglicate?

<p>Mast cell stabilization</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following medications is NOT a first-choice drug for the treatment of bronchoconstriction?

<p>Sodium cromoglicate</p> Signup and view all the answers

The late phase of asthma is characterized by the prevention of further allergen entry.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

MHC Class II is involved in the detection of allergens by eosinophils and mast cells.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

β2 agonists are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of bronchoconstriction.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

The early phase of bronchospasm is caused by the recruitment and activation of immune cells.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Muscarinic receptor antagonists are oral medications with a high incidence of side effects.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Theophylline is a type of β2 agonist.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Montelukast has strong anti-inflammatory activity.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Bronchiolar smooth muscle has a lot of sympathetic innervation.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

M antagonists are used to treat bronchoconstriction.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

Sodium cromoglicate has a well-understood mechanism of action.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Steroids can be used as a first-choice treatment for bronchoconstriction.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Sodium cromoglicate can be given orally or by inhalation.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Asthma

  • FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second) measures lung function in asthma patients.
  • Early phase bronchospasm prevents further allergen entry, while late phase inflammation involves recruitment and activation of immune cells.

Role of T cells in Asthma

  • T cells recognize allergens through MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class II.
  • Eosinophils and mast cells use IgE antibody to detect allergens.

Stages of Asthma and Mediators

  • Asthma stages involve early phase bronchospasm, late phase inflammation, and chronic inflammation.

Bronchodilators

  • β2 agonists (e.g., salbutamol, salmeterol) are first-choice drugs for asthma, providing quick relief and preventing mast cell release.
  • Muscarinic receptor antagonists (e.g., ipratropium) provide symptomatic relief with few side effects.
  • Methylxanthines (e.g., theophylline) have a long duration of action, but common side effects include nausea, headache, and insomnia.

Prophylactic Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

  • Steroids (e.g., beclomethasone) are first-choice drugs, providing slow-acting relief (3-7 days) with side effects like oral candidiasis and hoarseness.
  • Sodium cromoglicate is a mast cell stabilizer, decreasing sensory nerve stimulation, but is weak and not effective in all patients.

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