Assessing and Managing Fluid Therapy

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27 Questions

What is the recommended time frame to replace fluid deficit in a canine patient with hypovolaemia?

6-8 hours

Which of the following is a marker of dehydration?

Tacky mucous membranes

What is the recommended time frame to replace fluid deficit in a patient with dehydration?

12-24 hours

What is the fluid deficit percentage in a patient with mild depression, slightly prolonged CRT, slightly increased heart rate, increased blood lactate concentration, and concentrated urine?

5-7%

What is the fluid deficit percentage in a patient with depressed mental state, cold extremities, dry mucous membranes with a CRT >4 seconds, heart rate >100% above the normal reference range, increased blood lactate concentrations, increased creatinine concentrations, and unlikely to produce any urine?

12-15%

What is the consequence of not calculating fluid deficit in practice?

Incorrect estimation of fluid requirement

What is the consequence of dehydration in a patient?

Renal failure

Which of the following is the recommended rate for restoring intravascular volume in a hypovolaemic patient during shock fluid therapy?

90ml/kg

What is the recommended duration for giving fluid to a dehydrated patient to allow diffusion into intracellular and interstitial spaces?

12 - 24 hours

What is the formula for estimating fluid deficit in a patient?

% fluid deficit * bodyweight

What is the equivalent volume of 1 liter of hypertonic saline in terms of isotonic fluids?

3 - 5 liters

In a horse with colic requiring surgery, what is the recommended approach to stabilizing the horse and improving intravascular volume prior to anesthesia with a fluid challenge approach?

Give 2 liters of hypertonic saline

What is the recommended fluid challenge volume for a cat, sheep, or goat?

10ml/kg

What is the recommended fluid challenge volume for a dog, horse, or pig?

20ml/kg

In patients with strangulating lesions, why is time to surgery important?

To improve prognosis

What is the recommended approach for administering fluids in large animal practice once the fluid deficit in liters is calculated?

Administer half as a bolus and replace the other half as maintenance over 6-8 hours

What is the recommended duration for giving fluid to a dehydrated patient with a 5% deficit or less?

6 - 8 hours

What are the quantitative markers used to measure hypovolaemia?

HR, CRT, PCV/TS, Lactate, Urine Output

What are the markers used to assess dehydration?

Dec BW, Sunken eyes, Tacky MM, Inc skin tent

What are the clinically detectable signs of fluid deficit of less than 5%?

Mild depression, Slightly prolonged CRT, Slightly increased heart rate, Increased blood lactate concentration, Creatinine concentration concentrated urine

What are the clinically detectable signs of fluid deficit of 10%?

Depressed, May have cold extremities, Dry mucous membranes with a CRT >3 seconds, Heart rate >50% above the normal reference range, Increased blood lactate concentration, Increased creatinine concentrations, Small volume of very concentrated urine

What are the clinically detectable signs of fluid deficit of 12-15%?

Depressed, Cold extremities, Dry mucous membranes with a CRT >4 seconds, Heart rates >100% above the normal reference range, Increased blood lactate concentrations, Increased creatinine concentrations, Unlikely to produce any urine

What is the recommended approach for fluid therapy in a hypovolaemic patient during shock?

Give half of the calculated fluid deficit as a bolus and then replace the other half as maintenance over 6-8 hours.

What is the recommended approach for fluid therapy in a dehydrated patient with a 5% deficit or less?

Give the fluid over 12-24 hours to allow diffusion from the intravascular space into the intracellular and interstitial spaces.

How can the fluid deficit in liters be calculated?

Fluid deficit (in liters) = % fluid deficit \times bodyweight

What is the recommended approach for fluid therapy in a horse with colic requiring surgery?

Stabilize the horse and improve intravascular volume prior to anesthesia by giving a fluid challenge of 10 liters of Hartmann's solution and reassessing, possibly followed by another 10 liters of Hartmann's solution.

What is the equivalent volume of 1 liter of hypertonic saline in terms of isotonic fluids?

1 liter of hypertonic saline is equal to 3-5 liters of Hartmann's solution in the short term.

Test your knowledge on assessing and managing fluid therapy in patients. Learn about the important markers for hypovolaemia and dehydration, and how to adjust fluid rates and types accordingly.

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