Antidepressant Medications

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8 Questions

What is the primary mechanism of action of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating depression?

Increasing levels of serotonin in the brain

Which type of antidepressant is known for its dietary restrictions due to interactions with tyramine-rich foods?

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

What is an example of an off-label use of antidepressant medications?

Treating anxiety disorders

Which of the following is NOT a side effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)?

Dizziness

What is the primary difference between Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)?

SSRIs increase serotonin levels, while SNRIs increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels

Which of the following antidepressant types increases levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine?

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

What is a common side effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)?

Nausea

Which type of antidepressant is known for being introduced in the 1950s?

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Study Notes

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

  • Most commonly prescribed type of antidepressant
  • Work by increasing levels of serotonin in the brain
  • Examples:
    • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
    • Sertraline (Zoloft)
    • Paroxetine (Paxil)
    • Citalopram (Celexa)
    • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Effective in treating depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • Side effects:
    • Nausea, headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction

Antidepressant Types

  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs): increase levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): increase levels of serotonin
  • Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
  • Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs): increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)

  • Older type of antidepressant, introduced in the 1950s
  • Work by increasing levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
  • Examples:
    • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
    • Imipramine (Tofranil)
    • Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Effective in treating depression, anxiety, and insomnia
  • Side effects:
    • Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, and drowsiness

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

  • Older type of antidepressant, introduced in the 1950s
  • Work by increasing levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  • Examples:
    • Phenelzine (Nardil)
    • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Effective in treating depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder
  • Side effects:
    • Dizziness, headache, insomnia, and weight gain
  • Dietary restrictions: must avoid foods high in tyramine (e.g. cheese, wine)

Off-label Use

  • Using antidepressant medications for conditions other than depression
  • Examples:
    • Anxiety disorders (e.g. social anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder)
    • Insomnia and sleep disorders
    • Chronic pain management
    • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Off-label use requires careful consideration of risks and benefits, and close monitoring by a healthcare professional

Antidepressant Medications

  • Most commonly prescribed type of antidepressant is Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • SSRIs increase levels of serotonin in the brain to treat depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

Types of Antidepressants

  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) increase levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) increase levels of serotonin
  • Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine
  • Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs) increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine

SSRIs

  • Examples: Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), Paroxetine (Paxil), Citalopram (Celexa), Escitalopram (Lexapro)
  • Side effects: nausea, headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)

  • Older type of antidepressant, introduced in the 1950s
  • Examples: Amitriptyline (Elavil), Imipramine (Tofranil), Nortriptyline (Pamelor)
  • Side effects: dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, and drowsiness

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

  • Older type of antidepressant, introduced in the 1950s
  • Examples: Phenelzine (Nardil), Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Dietary restrictions: must avoid foods high in tyramine (e.g. cheese, wine)
  • Side effects: dizziness, headache, insomnia, and weight gain

Off-label Use

  • Using antidepressant medications for conditions other than depression
  • Examples: anxiety disorders, insomnia and sleep disorders, chronic pain management, premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Requires careful consideration of risks and benefits, and close monitoring by a healthcare professional

Learn about the different types of antidepressant medications, their mechanisms, and side effects. Includes Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs).

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