Ancient Indian and Greek Philosophers' Views on Matter

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16 Questions

Who postulated the idea of Parmanu as the smallest particles of matter?

Maharishi Kanad

Who elaborated the doctrine of Parmanu and said that these particles normally exist in a combined form which gives us various forms of matter?

Pakudha Katyayama

During which era did ancient Indian philosophers postulate the idea of Parmanu?

Around 500 BC

Which philosopher suggested that there will be a stage when particles obtained cannot be divided further?

Democritus

Which philosopher suggested the idea of indivisible particles and named them atoms?

Democritus

By the end of which century did scientists recognize the difference between elements and compounds?

18th century

What did Lavoisier establish in the field of chemical sciences?

Two important laws of chemical combination

What is the Law of Conservation of Mass concerned with?

Change in mass during a chemical reaction

According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, what is the mass change during a chemical reaction?

No change in mass

What did Lavoisier and Joseph L. Proust establish about the elements present in compounds?

They are always present in definite proportions by mass

What is another name for the Law of Constant Proportions?

Law of Definite Proportions

Who provided the basic theory about the nature of matter related to the laws established?

John Dalton

What term did John Dalton pick up to describe the basic unit of matter?

'Atoms'

In a compound such as water, what is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen to the mass of oxygen?

1:8

What did Proust state about the presence of elements in a chemical substance?

'Elements are always present in definite proportions by mass'

What did Lavoisier note about many compounds and their composition?

'Each compound had the same elements in the same proportions'

Study Notes

Ancient Indian Philosophers and the Concept of Parmanu

  • Ancient Indian philosophers postulated the idea of Parmanu, the smallest particles of matter, during the ancient era.
  • The doctrine of Parmanu was elaborated, stating that these particles normally exist in a combined form, giving us various forms of matter.

Ancient Greek Philosophers

  • The philosopher Kanada suggested that there will be a stage when particles obtained cannot be divided further.
  • The philosopher Democritus suggested the idea of indivisible particles and named them atoms.

Development of Modern Chemistry

  • By the end of the 18th century, scientists recognized the difference between elements and compounds.
  • Lavoisier established the concept of elements as substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
  • Lavoisier established the Law of Conservation of Mass, which is concerned with the total mass remaining constant during a chemical reaction, with no mass change.

Laws of Chemical Composition

  • Lavoisier and Joseph L. Proust established that elements are always present in the same proportion by mass in a given compound.
  • The Law of Constant Proportions states that a chemical compound always contains the same proportion of elements by mass.
  • John Dalton provided the basic theory about the nature of matter related to the laws established.
  • Dalton used the term "atom" to describe the basic unit of matter.

Chemical Compounds

  • In a compound like water, the ratio of the mass of hydrogen to the mass of oxygen is always constant.
  • Proust stated that a chemical substance always contains the same proportion of elements by mass.
  • Lavoisier noted that many compounds have a constant composition, with elements always present in the same proportion by mass.

Explore the ancient Indian philosopher Maharishi Kanad's concept of the smallest particles of matter and the idea of divisibility of matter as postulated around 500 BC. Discover the historical perspectives on the unseen form of matter from the chapter on ATOMS.

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