Ancient Babylon: Location and History

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10 Questions

What is the meaning of the name Babylon?

Gate of God

Who ruled the city of Babylon and the Babylonian Empire from 1792 B.C.E. to 1750 B.C.E.?

Hammurabi

When was Babylon captured by Alexander the Great from the Persian Empire?

331 B.C.E.

Who allegedly built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon?

Nebuchadnezzar

In which ancient empire did Babylon become a prominent city?

Persian Empire

Who staged a coup to become the king after being a guard to Cyrus' son?

Darius

Which field did Babylonian mathematicians make significant advancements in compared to their Egyptian counterparts?

Science and Astronomy

Who established the first Babylonian Empire?

Nabopolassar

Which ruler finished the conquest of the Assyrian Empire?

Nebuchadnezzar II

Who led the Babylonians to throw off Assyrian rule and form an alliance with the Medes to destroy Nineveh?

Nebuchadnezzar II

Study Notes

  • Hammurabi was a significant ruler during the Old Babylonian Period, establishing the first Babylonian Empire by controlling neighboring cities.
  • Hammurabi is known for his Code of Laws, the first codified law system in the world. This code reinforced the Babylonian Divine Right of Kings and provided a record of Hammurabi's legal rulings.
  • During the Middle Babylonian Period, the Babylonian Empire was ruled by various external powers, including the Hittites, Kassites, Middle Assyrian Empire, Elam, and Arameans.
  • The Hittites took over Babylon but were eventually defeated by the Kassites. The Kassites returned the statue of Marduk to Babylon but lost the empire's importance in international affairs.
  • Tukulti-Ninurta I, a Middle Assyrian Empire ruler, took over Babylon out of spite, removed Marduk's statue, and was killed by his sons.
  • Elam took over the Middle Assyrian Empire and took the statue of Marduk and the Code of Hammurabi to their capital, Susa.
  • The Neo-Assyrian Period saw Babylon ruled by the Kassites and Elamites along with the Assyrians, leading to intense rivalries and revolts against Assyrian rule.
  • Nabopolassar, an influential soldier, led the Babylonians to throw off Assyrian rule in 626 B.C.E. and later formed an alliance with the Medes to destroy Nineveh.
  • Nebuchadnezzar II, Nabopolassar's son, finished the conquest of the Assyrian Empire and brought various residents, including Jews from Jerusalem, to Babylon.
  • Nabonidus, the next Babylonian king, consolidated the power of the empire and formed alliances to withstand the Persians.
  • The Babylonian Empire eventually fell to the Persians under King Cyrus in 539 B.C.E. after the Battle of Opis.

Test your knowledge about the introduction and location of ancient Babylon, a historic city near Mesopotamia and the Euphrates River. Learn about its ties to the Akkadian and Assyrian Empires.

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