Anatomy of the Kidneys and its nephrons
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Anatomy of the Kidneys and its nephrons

Learn about the structure and function of the kidneys, including the hilum, ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces.

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@UnmatchedBohrium

Questions and Answers

What is the function of the myofibroblasts in the kidney?

To resist volume and pressure

What is the renal pelvis?

The upper end of the ureter that expands

What is the function of the renal cortex?

To contain renal corpuscles and tubules

What is the glomerulus?

<p>A tuft of capillaries where blood filtration begins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal medulla?

<p>To consist of aligned linear tubules and ducts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the space within Bowman's capsule called?

<p>Bowman's space</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the renal tubule is permeable to salts but not to water?

<p>Ascending limb</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule?

<p>Reabsorption of ions and water</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone regulates sodium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule?

<p>Aldosterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the collecting duct?

<p>Reabsorption of water and concentration of urine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of mesangial cells in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To provide structural support to the glomerulus capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of epithelium is found in the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule?

<p>Stellate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of slit diaphragms in the filtration apparatus of the kidney?

<p>To regulate the passage of substances during filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of proximal convoluted tubule cells?

<p>To reabsorb and secrete substances</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of epithelium is found in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

<p>Simple cuboidal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the hilum in the kidney?

<p>To allow nerves to enter and ureter to exit</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main component of the renal medulla?

<p>Aligned linear tubules and ducts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal papilla?

<p>To collect urine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What surrounds the renal pelvis and calyces?

<p>Adipose tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the Bowman's capsule?

<p>To collect the filtrate from the blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the afferent arteriole?

<p>To enter the glomerulus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the loop of Henle?

<p>To regulate the concentration of the filtrate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of transporting substances from the blood into the tubular fluid?

<p>Tubular secretion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing ions and water under the influence of hormones?

<p>Distal convoluted tubule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the network of capillary loops in each renal corpuscle?

<p>Glomerulus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone regulates water reabsorption in the collecting duct?

<p>Antidiuretic hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the path of blood flow in the kidneys?

<p>Renal artery -&gt; interlobar artery -&gt; afferent arteriole -&gt; glomerulus -&gt; efferent arteriole</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the podocytes in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To regulate the passage of substances during filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of epithelium is found in the outer parietal layer of the glomerular capsule?

<p>Simple squamous</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the glomerular basement membrane?

<p>To separate the blood from the capsular space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the mesangial cells in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To provide structural support to the glomerular capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure of the epithelium in the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle?

<p>Simple squamous</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule cells?

<p>To reclaim essential substances and dispose of waste products</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?

<p>To perform regulated reabsorption under the influence of aldosterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the slit diaphragms in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To regulate the passage of substances during filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the renal corpuscle?

<p>To filter blood and form the glomerular filtrate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing a majority of the filtrate?

<p>Proximal convoluted tubule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the vasa recta in the kidneys?

<p>To supply oxygen to the medulla</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of transporting substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood?

<p>Tubular reabsorption</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure that receives the fluid filtered through the glomerulus?

<p>Bowman's space</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone regulates calcium reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule?

<p>Parathyroid hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of transporting substances from the blood into the tubular fluid?

<p>Tubular secretion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing water and concentrating the urine?

<p>Collecting duct</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the arcuate arteries in the kidneys?

<p>To branch into interlobular arteries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the network of capillary loops in each renal corpuscle?

<p>Glomerulus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the fibroblasts in the outer layer of the kidney?

<p>To produce collagen fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces?

<p>Adipose tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal pyramids in the kidney?

<p>To collect urine formed by tubules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex?

<p>Medullary rays</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the Bowman's capsule in the nephron?

<p>To collect filtrate from the blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the lower end of the renal tubule that projects into a minor calyx?

<p>Renal papilla</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the myofibroblasts in the inner layer of the kidney?

<p>To resist volume and pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the area where the bases of the renal pyramids meet the cortex?

<p>Corticomedullary junction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the structure that consists of a renal pyramid and the cortical tissue at its side and base?

<p>Renal lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the structure that consists of a medullary ray and its cortical tissue?

<p>Renal lobule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the pedicles in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To create slit pores for filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the proximal convoluted tubule cells?

<p>To reabsorb essential substances and dispose of waste products</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the glomerular basement membrane?

<p>To separate the blood from the capsular space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the epithelial type in the thin descending limb of the loop of Henle?

<p>Simple squamous</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the mesangial cells in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To phagocytose protein aggregates and antibody-antigen complexes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the slit diaphragms in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To regulate the passage of substances during filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the epithelial type in the distal convoluted tubule?

<p>Simple cuboidal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the podocytes in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To create slit pores for filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the glomerular capsule?

<p>To create a space for the glomerular capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule cells in maintaining homeostasis?

<p>To reabsorb essential substances and dispose of waste products</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the myofibroblasts in the kidney?

<p>To resist volume and pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What surrounds the renal pelvis and calyces?

<p>Adipose tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal cortex?

<p>To contain renal corpuscles and tubules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure that receives the fluid filtered through the glomerulus?

<p>Bowman's capsule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex?

<p>Medullary rays</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal papilla?

<p>To project into a minor calyx and collect urine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main component of the renal medulla?

<p>Aligned linear tubules and ducts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces?

<p>Adipose tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the renal pyramids in the kidney?

<p>To separate the renal columns</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the structural units that filter blood and form urine?

<p>Nephrons</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing a majority of the filtrate, including water, ions, and nutrients?

<p>Proximal Convoluted Tubule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the renal corpuscle?

<p>Filtration of blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone regulates water reabsorption in the collecting duct?

<p>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of transporting substances from the tubular fluid back into the blood?

<p>Tubular reabsorption</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the renal tubule is impermeable to water but permeable to salts?

<p>Ascending limb of the loop of Henle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure that receives the fluid filtered through the glomerulus?

<p>Bowman's capsule</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which artery branches into interlobar arteries, which extend from the renal pyramids to the corticomedullary junction?

<p>Segmental artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the blood vessels that penetrate deep into the medulla, closely associated with the loops of Henle and collecting ducts?

<p>Vasa recta</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the nephron is responsible for reabsorbing ions and water under the influence of hormones like aldosterone and parathyroid hormone?

<p>Distal convoluted tubule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the renal arteries?

<p>To transport oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidneys</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the renal corpuscle, which type of epithelium is present at the outer parietal layer of the glomerular capsule?

<p>Simple squamous</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the podocytes in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To create the filtration apparatus of the kidney</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the loop of Henle, what type of epithelium is present in the thin descending limb?

<p>Simple squamous</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the mesangial cells in the renal corpuscle?

<p>To provide structural support to the glomerular capillaries</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the slit diaphragms in the filtration apparatus of the kidney?

<p>To regulate the passage of substances during filtration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule cells?

<p>To maintain the body's homeostasis by reclaiming essential substances</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the glomerular basement membrane?

<p>To separate the blood from the capsular space</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the distal convoluted tubule?

<p>To perform regulated reabsorption</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the structure of the filtration apparatus of the kidney that creates slit pores?

<p>Podocytes, capillary endothelial cells, and slit diaphragms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the renal corpuscle?

<p>To filter the blood and separate the waste products</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Kidney Structure

  • The kidney has a hilum, where nerves enter and the ureter exits, and is covered by a thin fibrous layer with an outer layer of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and an inner layer of myofibroblasts.
  • The renal pelvis, located inside the hilum, expands and divides into two or three major calyces, which then turn into minor calyces.
  • The area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces has adipose tissue.
  • The parenchyma (functional tissue) of the kidney is divided into renal cortex and renal medulla.

Renal Cortex and Medulla

  • The renal cortex is an outer darker region containing renal corpuscles and tubules, fibroblast-like cells, and macrophages.
  • The renal medulla is the inner region consisting mostly of aligned linear tubules and ducts, with myofibroblasts and 8-15 renal pyramids.
  • Each pyramid has a base that meets at the cortex by the corticomedullary junction, separated by areas called renal columns.
  • Parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex are medullary rays, which combine with cortical tissue to form renal lobules.

Nephron Structure and Function

  • A nephron is a functional unit that filters blood and forms urine, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a long renal tubule.
  • The renal corpuscle has a glomerulus (a tuft of capillaries) surrounded by Bowman's capsule, which collects the filtrate from the blood.
  • The renal tubule is divided into several segments, each with specific functions in processing the filtrate.

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

  • The PCT reabsorbs a majority of the filtrate, including water, ions (sodium, potassium, calcium), and nutrients (glucose, amino acids).
  • This process primarily occurs in the PCT, but continues along the nephron.

Loop of Henle

  • The loop of Henle is a U-shaped structure with descending and ascending limbs that extend into the medulla.
  • The descending limb is permeable to water but not to salts, allowing water to be reabsorbed into the medulla, concentrating the filtrate.
  • The ascending limb is permeable to salts but not to water, allowing salts to be reabsorbed, diluting the filtrate.

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct

  • The DCT continues to reabsorb ions and water, under the influence of hormones like aldosterone and parathyroid hormone.
  • The collecting duct receives filtrate from multiple nephrons and reabsorbs water and concentrates the urine, regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • The urine then flows into the minor calyx.

Nephron Functions

  • Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, where blood pressure forces water and small solutes through the glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsule.
  • Tubular reabsorption and secretion occur along the nephron, primarily in the PCT and DCT, respectively.

Blood Flow in the Kidneys

  • The renal arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidneys for filtration.
  • The renal veins transport filtered deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the heart.
  • The renal arteries branch into segmental arteries, which divide into interlobar arteries, then arcuate arteries, and finally interlobular arteries that give rise to afferent arterioles leading into the glomerulus.

Renal Corpuscle

  • The renal corpuscle contains a tuft of capillaries (glomerulus) surrounded by an epithelial capsule (Bowman's capsule).
  • The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is made of stellate epithelium (podocytes) with primary and secondary processes that create the filtration apparatus.
  • Slit pores and slit diaphragms regulate the passage of substances during filtration.

Glomerular Basement Membrane and Mesangial Cells

  • The glomerular basement membrane separates the blood from the capsular space and is formed by the fusion of the basal lamina from both the endothelial cells of the capillary and podocytes.
  • Mesangial cells provide structural support, adjust to blood pressure changes, and remove protein aggregates and antibody-antigen complexes, and secrete cytokines and prostaglandins.

Kidney Structure

  • The kidney has a hilum, where nerves enter and the ureter exits, and is covered by a thin fibrous layer with an outer layer of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and an inner layer of myofibroblasts.
  • The renal pelvis, located inside the hilum, expands and divides into two or three major calyces, which then turn into minor calyces.
  • The area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces has adipose tissue.
  • The parenchyma (functional tissue) of the kidney is divided into renal cortex and renal medulla.

Renal Cortex and Medulla

  • The renal cortex is an outer darker region containing renal corpuscles and tubules, fibroblast-like cells, and macrophages.
  • The renal medulla is the inner region consisting mostly of aligned linear tubules and ducts, with myofibroblasts and 8-15 renal pyramids.
  • Each pyramid has a base that meets at the cortex by the corticomedullary junction, separated by areas called renal columns.
  • Parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex are medullary rays, which combine with cortical tissue to form renal lobules.

Nephron Structure and Function

  • A nephron is a functional unit that filters blood and forms urine, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a long renal tubule.
  • The renal corpuscle has a glomerulus (a tuft of capillaries) surrounded by Bowman's capsule, which collects the filtrate from the blood.
  • The renal tubule is divided into several segments, each with specific functions in processing the filtrate.

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

  • The PCT reabsorbs a majority of the filtrate, including water, ions (sodium, potassium, calcium), and nutrients (glucose, amino acids).
  • This process primarily occurs in the PCT, but continues along the nephron.

Loop of Henle

  • The loop of Henle is a U-shaped structure with descending and ascending limbs that extend into the medulla.
  • The descending limb is permeable to water but not to salts, allowing water to be reabsorbed into the medulla, concentrating the filtrate.
  • The ascending limb is permeable to salts but not to water, allowing salts to be reabsorbed, diluting the filtrate.

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct

  • The DCT continues to reabsorb ions and water, under the influence of hormones like aldosterone and parathyroid hormone.
  • The collecting duct receives filtrate from multiple nephrons and reabsorbs water and concentrates the urine, regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • The urine then flows into the minor calyx.

Nephron Functions

  • Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, where blood pressure forces water and small solutes through the glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsule.
  • Tubular reabsorption and secretion occur along the nephron, primarily in the PCT and DCT, respectively.

Blood Flow in the Kidneys

  • The renal arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidneys for filtration.
  • The renal veins transport filtered deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the heart.
  • The renal arteries branch into segmental arteries, which divide into interlobar arteries, then arcuate arteries, and finally interlobular arteries that give rise to afferent arterioles leading into the glomerulus.

Renal Corpuscle

  • The renal corpuscle contains a tuft of capillaries (glomerulus) surrounded by an epithelial capsule (Bowman's capsule).
  • The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is made of stellate epithelium (podocytes) with primary and secondary processes that create the filtration apparatus.
  • Slit pores and slit diaphragms regulate the passage of substances during filtration.

Glomerular Basement Membrane and Mesangial Cells

  • The glomerular basement membrane separates the blood from the capsular space and is formed by the fusion of the basal lamina from both the endothelial cells of the capillary and podocytes.
  • Mesangial cells provide structural support, adjust to blood pressure changes, and remove protein aggregates and antibody-antigen complexes, and secrete cytokines and prostaglandins.

Kidney Structure

  • The kidney has a hilum, where nerves enter and the ureter exits, and is covered by a thin fibrous layer with an outer layer of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and an inner layer of myofibroblasts.
  • The renal pelvis, located inside the hilum, expands and divides into two or three major calyces, which then turn into minor calyces.
  • The area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces has adipose tissue.
  • The parenchyma (functional tissue) of the kidney is divided into renal cortex and renal medulla.

Renal Cortex and Medulla

  • The renal cortex is an outer darker region containing renal corpuscles and tubules, fibroblast-like cells, and macrophages.
  • The renal medulla is the inner region consisting mostly of aligned linear tubules and ducts, with myofibroblasts and 8-15 renal pyramids.
  • Each pyramid has a base that meets at the cortex by the corticomedullary junction, separated by areas called renal columns.
  • Parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex are medullary rays, which combine with cortical tissue to form renal lobules.

Nephron Structure and Function

  • A nephron is a functional unit that filters blood and forms urine, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a long renal tubule.
  • The renal corpuscle has a glomerulus (a tuft of capillaries) surrounded by Bowman's capsule, which collects the filtrate from the blood.
  • The renal tubule is divided into several segments, each with specific functions in processing the filtrate.

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

  • The PCT reabsorbs a majority of the filtrate, including water, ions (sodium, potassium, calcium), and nutrients (glucose, amino acids).
  • This process primarily occurs in the PCT, but continues along the nephron.

Loop of Henle

  • The loop of Henle is a U-shaped structure with descending and ascending limbs that extend into the medulla.
  • The descending limb is permeable to water but not to salts, allowing water to be reabsorbed into the medulla, concentrating the filtrate.
  • The ascending limb is permeable to salts but not to water, allowing salts to be reabsorbed, diluting the filtrate.

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct

  • The DCT continues to reabsorb ions and water, under the influence of hormones like aldosterone and parathyroid hormone.
  • The collecting duct receives filtrate from multiple nephrons and reabsorbs water and concentrates the urine, regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • The urine then flows into the minor calyx.

Nephron Functions

  • Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, where blood pressure forces water and small solutes through the glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsule.
  • Tubular reabsorption and secretion occur along the nephron, primarily in the PCT and DCT, respectively.

Blood Flow in the Kidneys

  • The renal arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidneys for filtration.
  • The renal veins transport filtered deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the heart.
  • The renal arteries branch into segmental arteries, which divide into interlobar arteries, then arcuate arteries, and finally interlobular arteries that give rise to afferent arterioles leading into the glomerulus.

Renal Corpuscle

  • The renal corpuscle contains a tuft of capillaries (glomerulus) surrounded by an epithelial capsule (Bowman's capsule).
  • The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is made of stellate epithelium (podocytes) with primary and secondary processes that create the filtration apparatus.
  • Slit pores and slit diaphragms regulate the passage of substances during filtration.

Glomerular Basement Membrane and Mesangial Cells

  • The glomerular basement membrane separates the blood from the capsular space and is formed by the fusion of the basal lamina from both the endothelial cells of the capillary and podocytes.
  • Mesangial cells provide structural support, adjust to blood pressure changes, and remove protein aggregates and antibody-antigen complexes, and secrete cytokines and prostaglandins.

Kidney Structure

  • The kidney has a hilum, where nerves enter and the ureter exits, and is covered by a thin fibrous layer with an outer layer of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and an inner layer of myofibroblasts.
  • The renal pelvis, located inside the hilum, expands and divides into two or three major calyces, which then turn into minor calyces.
  • The area surrounding the renal pelvis and calyces has adipose tissue.
  • The parenchyma (functional tissue) of the kidney is divided into renal cortex and renal medulla.

Renal Cortex and Medulla

  • The renal cortex is an outer darker region containing renal corpuscles and tubules, fibroblast-like cells, and macrophages.
  • The renal medulla is the inner region consisting mostly of aligned linear tubules and ducts, with myofibroblasts and 8-15 renal pyramids.
  • Each pyramid has a base that meets at the cortex by the corticomedullary junction, separated by areas called renal columns.
  • Parallel rays extending from the medulla into the cortex are medullary rays, which combine with cortical tissue to form renal lobules.

Nephron Structure and Function

  • A nephron is a functional unit that filters blood and forms urine, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a long renal tubule.
  • The renal corpuscle has a glomerulus (a tuft of capillaries) surrounded by Bowman's capsule, which collects the filtrate from the blood.
  • The renal tubule is divided into several segments, each with specific functions in processing the filtrate.

Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

  • The PCT reabsorbs a majority of the filtrate, including water, ions (sodium, potassium, calcium), and nutrients (glucose, amino acids).
  • This process primarily occurs in the PCT, but continues along the nephron.

Loop of Henle

  • The loop of Henle is a U-shaped structure with descending and ascending limbs that extend into the medulla.
  • The descending limb is permeable to water but not to salts, allowing water to be reabsorbed into the medulla, concentrating the filtrate.
  • The ascending limb is permeable to salts but not to water, allowing salts to be reabsorbed, diluting the filtrate.

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) and Collecting Duct

  • The DCT continues to reabsorb ions and water, under the influence of hormones like aldosterone and parathyroid hormone.
  • The collecting duct receives filtrate from multiple nephrons and reabsorbs water and concentrates the urine, regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • The urine then flows into the minor calyx.

Nephron Functions

  • Filtration occurs in the renal corpuscle, where blood pressure forces water and small solutes through the glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsule.
  • Tubular reabsorption and secretion occur along the nephron, primarily in the PCT and DCT, respectively.

Blood Flow in the Kidneys

  • The renal arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidneys for filtration.
  • The renal veins transport filtered deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the heart.
  • The renal arteries branch into segmental arteries, which divide into interlobar arteries, then arcuate arteries, and finally interlobular arteries that give rise to afferent arterioles leading into the glomerulus.

Renal Corpuscle

  • The renal corpuscle contains a tuft of capillaries (glomerulus) surrounded by an epithelial capsule (Bowman's capsule).
  • The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is made of stellate epithelium (podocytes) with primary and secondary processes that create the filtration apparatus.
  • Slit pores and slit diaphragms regulate the passage of substances during filtration.

Glomerular Basement Membrane and Mesangial Cells

  • The glomerular basement membrane separates the blood from the capsular space and is formed by the fusion of the basal lamina from both the endothelial cells of the capillary and podocytes.
  • Mesangial cells provide structural support, adjust to blood pressure changes, and remove protein aggregates and antibody-antigen complexes, and secrete cytokines and prostaglandins.

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