Ana L2C | Anatomy of the GI

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28 Questions

Where does the esophagus begin?

At the level of C6

Where does the esophagus join the stomach?

In the abdominal part

What forms a sling around the esophagus at the opening of the diaphragm?

Fibers from the right crus of the diaphragm

Where is the second anatomic constriction of the esophagus located?

At the crossing with the aortic arch and left main bronchus

What are the anterior relations of the cervical part of the esophagus?

Trachea and the recurrent laryngeal nerves

What is the function of the ileocecal sphincter?

Controls the emptying of ileal content into the large intestine

Which anatomical characteristic provides the large intestine with its characteristic 'baggy' aspect?

Haustra

Where is the cecum located in relation to the ileocecal opening?

Inferior

What is the function of the appendix?

Contains large aggregations of lymphoid tissue in its walls

From which artery does the superior rectal artery receive its blood supply?

Inferior mesenteric artery

What marks the end of the anal canal?

Intersphincteric groove

Which structure is suspended from the terminal ileum by the mesoappendix?

Appendix

What is the arterial supply to the rectum and anal canal?

Inferior mesenteric artery

What are teniae coli?

Longitudinal bands of smooth muscle located underneath the peritoneum

What provides sacculations that occur along the large intestine?

Haustra

Which artery supplies the upper third of the esophagus?

Inferior thyroid artery

What is the main arterial supply to the stomach from the celiac trunk?

Left gastric artery

Where does the jejunum mostly reside?

Left upper quadrant

Which part of the small intestine is characterized by a thicker wall, wider lumen, and numerous prominent folds?

Jejunum

What is responsible for the final stages of food digestion and nutrient absorption?

Small intestine

Where is the major duodenal papilla located?

Descending duodenum

What regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, participates in immune surveillance, and transports dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins from the gut lumen?

Lymphatic system

What can occur at the junction of the esophagus and stomach?

Stricture development

Where does esophageal carcinoma develop?

Lower third of the esophagus

What is the main arterial supply to the stomach from the celiac trunk?

Left gastric artery

Where does the small intestine extend from and to?

Stomach to large intestine

What is located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach to prevent regurgitation?

Gastro-esophageal sphincter

The posterior relations of the esophagus in the thoracic part are: bodies of the thoracic vertebrae, thoracic duct, azygos vein, intercostal arteries, and descending thoracic aorta (lower end)

True

Study Notes

  • The esophagus is a tubular organ that connects the mouth to the stomach. It is divided into three parts: upper, middle, and lower.
  • Difficulties in passing an endoscope can occur at the junction of the esophagus and stomach.
  • Burning and strictures develop in the lower third of the esophagus after swallowing caustic liquids.
  • Esophageal carcinoma can develop at the sites of esophageal strictures.
  • The upper third of the esophagus is supplied by the inferior thyroid artery, the middle third by the thoracic aorta, and the lower third by the left gastric artery.
  • The upper third of the esophagus drains into the inferior thyroid veins, the middle third into the azygos veins, and the lower third into the left gastric vein, which is a tributary of the portal vein.
  • The gastro-esophageal sphincter, a physiological sphincter, is located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach to prevent regurgitation.
  • The stomach is the most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract and has a J-like shape, positioned between the abdominal esophagus and the small intestine.
  • The stomach is divided into four regions: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part.
  • The stomach has distinctive features, including greater and lesser curvatures, cardial notch, and angular incisure.
  • The left gastric artery is the main arterial supply to the stomach from the celiac trunk.
  • The small intestine is a part of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the stomach to the large intestine and is responsible for the final stages of food digestion and nutrient absorption.
  • The small intestine is divided into three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
  • The duodenum is the shortest part of the intestine, located between the level of L1 and L3, and is mostly retroperitoneal.
  • The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum through the major duodenal papilla.
  • The jejunum is the proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is characterized by a thicker wall, wider lumen, and numerous prominent folds.
  • The ileum is the distal three fifths of the small intestine, mostly in the right lower quadrant, and has thinner walls, fewer and less prominent mucosal folds, more mesenteric fat, and more arterial arcades.
  • The lymphatic system of the small intestine regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, participates in immune surveillance, and transports dietary fat and fat-soluble vitamins from the gut lumen.
  • The jejunum and ileum are innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers via the superior mesenteric plexus, and the visceral sensation of pain arising from them is poorly localized and referred to the periumbilical region.

Test your knowledge of the anatomy of the esophagus, including its length, parts, and relationships with surrounding structures such as the vertebral column, thyroid gland, trachea, and aortic arch.

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