Allopatric Speciation and Reproductive Barriers

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20 Questions

Polyploidy is more common in which group of organisms?

Plants

What is an autopolyploid?

An individual with extra sets of chromosomes

What are the offspring of mating between tetraploids and diploids called?

Triploids

How can tetraploids produce fertile offspring?

By mating with other tetraploids

What is an allopolyploid?

An individual with chromosomes derived from different species

What can result in sympatric speciation in plants?

Both polyploidy and habitat differentiation

Which organism can live on both native hawthorn trees and introduced apple trees?

North American apple maggot fly

How are flies that use different host species reproductively isolated?

By both habitat and temporal barriers

What is the process called when cell division errors result in an increase in the number of chromosomes?

Polyploidy

What is the term for the differentiation of habitats that can lead to sympatric speciation?

Habitat differentiation

Which type of speciation occurs when gene flow is reduced through factors including polyploidy, habitat differentiation, and sexual selection?

Sympatric speciation

What can happen to isolated lab populations of fruit flies raised on different diets?

They can evolve to digest their food source more efficiently

Which type of speciation can occur in lab populations that are experimentally isolated and subjected to different environmental conditions?

Allopatric speciation

What is one factor that can contribute to sympatric speciation?

Polyploidy

What is the main difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation?

Allopatric speciation involves reproductive barriers while sympatric speciation involves geographic isolation

What is one factor that can contribute to allopatric speciation?

Geographic isolation

What is the process by which isolated lab populations of fruit flies evolve to digest their food source more efficiently?

Natural selection

What is one factor that can reduce gene flow in sympatric speciation?

Polyploidy

What is one factor that can reduce gene flow in allopatric speciation?

Geographic isolation

What is one factor that can contribute to the development of reproductive barriers in allopatric speciation?

Geographic isolation

Study Notes

Polyploidy and Speciation

  • Polyploidy is more common in plants.
  • An autopolyploid is an individual with more than two sets of chromosomes derived from the same species.
  • The offspring of mating between tetraploids and diploids are called triploids.
  • Tetraploids can produce fertile offspring through a process called polyspermy.
  • An allopolyploid is an individual with more than two sets of chromosomes derived from different species.
  • Polyploidy can result in sympatric speciation in plants.
  • The Rhagoletis pomonella fly can live on both native hawthorn trees and introduced apple trees.

Reproductive Isolation and Speciation

  • Flies that use different host species are reproductively isolated.
  • The process by which cell division errors result in an increase in the number of chromosomes is called polyploidy.
  • The term for the differentiation of habitats that can lead to sympatric speciation is ecological speciation.
  • Sympatric speciation occurs when gene flow is reduced through factors including polyploidy, habitat differentiation, and sexual selection.
  • Isolated lab populations of fruit flies raised on different diets can undergo adaptive radiation.
  • Sympatric speciation can occur in lab populations that are experimentally isolated and subjected to different environmental conditions.
  • One factor that can contribute to sympatric speciation is resource competition.
  • The main difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation is the presence or absence of geographic barriers.

Allopatric Speciation

  • One factor that can contribute to allopatric speciation is the formation of a physical barrier.
  • The process by which isolated lab populations of fruit flies evolve to digest their food source more efficiently is called adaptive evolution.
  • One factor that can reduce gene flow in sympatric speciation is habitat differentiation.
  • One factor that can reduce gene flow in allopatric speciation is geographical distance.
  • One factor that can contribute to the development of reproductive barriers in allopatric speciation is genetic drift.

Test your knowledge on evidence of allopatric speciation with this quiz! Learn how reproductive barriers can develop in lab populations subjected to different environmental conditions, using fruit flies as an example. Explore the fascinating process of evolution in response to dietary changes.

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