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Acid-Base Balance in Human Body

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Which of the following is the most immediate buffer system in the body?

Protein buffering or circulating blood buffering

What is the normal range for arterial pH in the human body?

7.35 - 7.45

Which of the following buffer systems involves the exchange of bicarbonate ions at the kidneys?

Renal buffering or phosphate buffering

What is the process by which carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body?

Carbonic acid dissociates into water and carbon dioxide, which is then exhaled through the lungs

Which of the following processes is a compensatory mechanism that works closely with renal and protein buffering?

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering

What is the name of the device used by paramedics to monitor carbon dioxide elimination?

Capnograph

Which of the following processes is involved in the exchange of carbon dioxide at the alveolar-capillary interface in the lungs?

Diffusion

What is the Greek origin of the term 'capnography'?

Kapnos, meaning 'smoke'

Which of the following buffer systems is monitored by measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 or EtCO2)?

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering

What is the primary function of maintaining proper acid-base balance in the body?

To regulate the pH of body fluids and sustain life

Which of the following can directly influence acid-base derangements in the body?

Diseases, dehydration, and trauma

What is the relationship between hydrogen concentration and the pH number?

The higher the hydrogen concentration, the lower the pH number

What is the primary function of hydrogen in the body?

To maintain cellular membranes and enzyme activities

What is the relationship between potassium and acid-base balance?

Both potassium imbalances and acid-base imbalances can lead to each other

Which of the following is a major source of acidic by-products in the body?

Cellular metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats

What is the normal pH range for the human body?

7.35 to 7.45

What is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in ill and injured patients?

Lactic acidosis from cellular metabolism

How does Lactated Ringer's (LR) solution differ from Normal Saline (NS)?

NS exacerbates acidosis by causing hyperchloremic acidosis

Which of the following is NOT a way the body balances acids?

Actions of the liver

Which of the following is NOT a cause of bicarbonate deficit or loss in the body?

Hyperventilation

Which of the following is NOT a cause of acid excess in the body?

Metabolic alkalosis

Which of the following buffer systems in the body acts the quickest?

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering (CO2)

What is the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the body's buffer systems?

CO2 dissolves in water to form H2CO3

What is the primary function of the kidney's actions in the body's acid-base balance?

Excreting excess hydrogen ions (H+)

Which of the following is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in ill and injured patients?

Lactic acidosis from cellular metabolism

How do Normal Saline (NS) and Lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions differ in their effect on acid-base balance?

NS exacerbates acidosis through hyperchloremic acidosis, while LR assists with less acidosis by providing sodium lactate that is metabolized to bicarbonate.

Which of the following is NOT a way the body balances acids?

Actions of the liver

Which of the following buffer systems in the body acts the quickest?

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering

What is the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the body's buffer systems?

CO2 is converted to H2CO3, which then dissociates into H+ and HCO3- to buffer acids.

Which of the following is a major source of acidic by-products in the body?

Cellular metabolism and the Krebs cycle

What is the primary function of maintaining proper acid-base balance in the body?

To ensure optimal enzyme function and cellular processes

What is the relationship between hydrogen concentration and the pH number?

pH is a logarithmic scale that represents the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration.

What is the relationship between hydrogen concentration and the pH number?

As hydrogen concentration increases, pH number decreases.

What role do acids play in the body?

Acids lower pH by providing ions (H+).

What is the primary function of the buffer system in the body?

To prevent any changes in pH.

How are carbonic acid and carbon dioxide related in the body?

Carbon dioxide is a by-product of carbonic acid breakdown.

What happens to potassium concentrations in acid-base imbalances?

Potassium imbalances can lead to acid-base imbalances.

Which of the following conditions can influence acid-base derangements?

Dehydration

What is the significance of hydrogen for cellular membranes and enzyme activities?

Hydrogen maintains cellular membranes and enzyme activities.

Why are acid-base balance and pH crucial for life and health?

"They help sustain life by maintaining stability in bodily functions."

What is the primary role of carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering in the body?

Facilitating the exchange of carbon dioxide at the alveolar-capillary interface in the lungs

What is the primary function of waveform capnography in the context of monitoring acid-base balance?

Graphically representing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) during expiration

Which of the following processes is involved in the conversion of carbonic acid (H2CO3) into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) during carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering?

Hydrolysis

What is the primary function of renal buffering or phosphate buffering in the body's acid-base balance?

Exchanging bicarbonate ions for hydrogen ions at the kidneys

Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the body's buffer systems?

H2CO3 is formed by the combination of CO2 and water (H2O) in the presence of carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following statements accurately describes the process of protein buffering or circulating blood buffering in the body's acid-base balance?

Plasma proteins neutralize excess hydrogen ions (H+) by donating protons, forming weak acids that are excreted by the kidneys

What is the primary function of the kidneys in the body's acid-base balance?

Excreting excess hydrogen ions and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions to maintain proper pH levels

Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between potassium and acid-base balance in the body?

Increased potassium levels lead to metabolic acidosis by promoting the retention of hydrogen ions (H+)

What is the primary role of the protein buffering system in maintaining the body's acid-base balance?

To neutralize excess acids through the binding of hydrogen ions to circulating proteins

What is the primary function of the kidneys in regulating the body's acid-base balance?

To excrete hydrogen ions and reabsorb bicarbonate ions

What is the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the body's buffer systems?

CO2 is converted to H2CO3, which then dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions

Which of the following buffer systems in the body acts the quickest to respond to changes in acid-base balance?

Protein (circulating blood) buffering

What is the relationship between the base excess or base deficit (BE/BD) value and the severity of metabolic acidosis?

The more negative the BE/BD value, the more severe the metabolic acidosis

What is the primary function of waveform capnography in the context of monitoring acid-base balance?

To measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the blood

What is the relationship between potassium and acid-base balance in the body?

Potassium levels are closely linked to the body's ability to maintain proper pH through renal and respiratory mechanisms

What is the primary cause of metabolic acidosis in critically ill and injured patients?

Sepsis

What is the primary mechanism for CO2 transport in the blood?

Renal buffering

Which of the following disorders is NOT commonly associated with elevated levels of ammonia in the body?

Epilepsy

What is the most common cause of acid elimination through protein buffering?

Hemorrhaging

Which component of the nephron is primarily responsible for regulating H+ and HCO3-?

Tubules

In acid-base balance, what is the primary function of the kidneys?

Maintaining electrolyte balance

What is the primary cause of metabolic acidosis in patients with liver diseases?

Cirrhosis

Which buffer system in the body is primarily responsible for maintaining CO2 balance through urine excretion?

Ammonia excretion

What is the function of bicarbonate in the renal system?

Maintaining CO2 levels in the blood

Which of the following conditions is MOST likely to cause respiratory alkalosis?

Altitude acclimation

What is the primary purpose of administering sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis?

To directly neutralize excess hydrogen ions and raise the blood pH

What is the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the body's buffer systems?

CO2 and H2CO3 exist in a dynamic equilibrium, with the ratio between the two determined by the partial pressure of CO2.

Which of the following is the primary function of the body's buffer systems in maintaining acid-base balance?

To rapidly neutralize excess hydrogen ions and prevent dramatic changes in pH

How do Normal Saline (NS) and Lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions differ in their effect on acid-base balance?

NS is more acidic and can contribute to metabolic acidosis, while LR is more alkaline and can help correct metabolic acidosis.

What is the primary role of carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering in the body's acid-base balance?

To rapidly neutralize excess hydrogen ions and prevent dramatic changes in pH

Which of the following is the most immediate buffer system in the body for regulating acid-base balance?

Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering

What is the primary function of maintaining proper acid-base balance in the body?

To ensure optimal cellular function and metabolic processes

Which of the following is a major source of acidic by-products in the body that can contribute to metabolic acidosis?

Cellular respiration

What is the relationship between hydrogen concentration and the pH number?

pH is directly proportional to the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, with a higher pH indicating a lower hydrogen ion concentration.

What is the primary role of the respiratory system in acid-base balance?

To regulate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) by controlling the rate of exhalation

Which of the following is the primary cause of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)?

Buildup of ketone bodies due to impaired glucose metabolism

What is the primary role of the kidneys in acid-base balance?

To reabsorb or excrete bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions

Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause respiratory acidosis?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

What is the primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system in acid-base balance?

To neutralize excess hydrogen ions by forming carbonic acid

What is the primary cause of lactic acidosis?

Buildup of lactic acid due to tissue hypoxia or impaired cellular respiration

Which of the following is the primary role of the protein buffer system in acid-base balance?

To neutralize excess hydrogen ions by binding them to plasma proteins

Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause metabolic alkalosis?

Prolonged vomiting

Study Notes

Acid-Base Balance

  • The “power of hydrogen” pH is changing every minute
  • Acid-Base is CRUCIAL to sustaining life and maintaining health
  • The body regulates pH by a buffer system
  • Acid-Base derangements may be influenced by: • Diseases • Dehydration • Decrease in urine elimination • Shock • Trauma • Cardiovascular assaults

pH Scale

  • Acid: pH < 7.35
  • Neutral: pH = 7
  • Base: pH > 7.45
  • pH 7.35 - 7.45: Normal range

Buffer Systems

  • 3 major buffer systems:
    1. Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate buffering (CO2) • Exchanged at the lungs • Acts in seconds to minutes • Only temporary
    2. Protein buffering or circulating blood • Exchanged during circulation at the capillaries • Most common of acid illumination • Acts immediately
    3. Renal buffering or Phosphate buffing (Hco3) • Exchanged at the kidneys • Takes hours to days but very effective

Acid-Base Derangements

  • Metabolic acidosis: • Lactic acidosis released during cellular metabolism (Krebs Cycle) production of ATP • Can be localized or systemic
  • Respiratory acidosis: • Causes:
    • Hypoxia
    • Respiratory diseases
    • COPD
    • Bronchospasm
    • Asthma • Symptoms:
    • Dyspnea
    • Headache
    • Fatigue
    • Confusion
    • Seizures
  • Metabolic alkalosis: • Causes:
    • Vomiting
    • Diuretic use
    • Adrenal gland disorders
    • Eating disorders • Symptoms:
    • Muscle weakness
    • Numbness or tingling in the face, hands, and feet
    • Seizures
    • Headache
    • Confusion
  • Respiratory alkalosis: • Causes:
    • Hyperventilation
    • Anxiety
    • Pain
    • Infection • Symptoms:
    • Dizziness
    • Lightheadedness
    • Tingling or numbness in the face, hands, and feet
    • Muscle weakness
    • Seizures

Capnography

  • Monitor CO2 elimination
  • Normal ranges: • EtCO2: 35-45 mmHg • PaCO2: 35-45 mmHg

Pathophysiology

  • Two influencing factors to pH:
    1. Metabolic related to Kidney function (HCo3-)
    2. Respiratory related to Lung function (CO2)
  • Test by Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) or Venous Blood Gas (VBG)
  • Treatment is to find the underlying condition
  • pH is used as a tool to evaluate treatment regimens

Learn about the importance of acid-base balance in the human body, how pH is regulated through buffer systems, and factors influencing acid-base derangements like diseases, dehydration, and shock. Understand the relationship between hydrogen concentration and pH levels.

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