Acid-Base Balance and pH Scale
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Acid-Base Balance and pH Scale

Test your understanding of acid-base balance, pH scale, and its importance in maintaining essential bodily functions. Learn about the compensatory systems, acidotic and alkaline conditions, and how deviation from normal pH can impact electrolyte balance, muscle contraction, and enzyme activity.

Created by
@VirtuousClematis

Questions and Answers

What is the result of CO2 combining with water in the body?

Formation of carbonic acid and subsequently bicarbonate and hydrogen ions

What is the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH?

To adjust the excretion of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions as required

What is the relationship between bicarbonate levels and pH levels?

Bicarbonate levels and pH levels increase or decrease together

What is the likely diagnosis of Alex, the 30-year-old male experiencing rapid breathing, lightheadedness, and tingling sensation in his fingers?

<p>Respiratory Alkalosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the time frame for adjustments made by the kidneys to accomplish?

<p>Hours to days</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of increased hydrogen ion excretion and bicarbonate conservation in the kidneys?

<p>Decreased pH levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most likely cause of Alex's rapid breathing?

<p>Panic attack</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the likely underlying condition of Sarah's symptoms?

<p>Chronic kidney disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Alex's oxygen saturation level?

<p>Normal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason Sarah's daughter called 911?

<p>Sarah's symptoms of weakness, confusion, and nausea</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Alex's heart rate?

<p>Elevated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the buffer system in the body?

<p>To resist changes in pH when acids or bases are added</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the pH range compatible with life?

<p>7.0 - 7.8</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which ion has a negative charge?

<p>Chloride</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the pH range of gastric juice?

<p>1.5 - 3.5</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the kidneys in maintaining acid-base balance?

<p>To regulate pH by excreting excess ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of a deviation of 'normal' pH in the body?

<p>Compromise of essential bodily functions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Sarah's heart rate based on the assessment of her vital signs?

<p>Elevated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the protein buffer system in the body?

<p>To react with acids or bases to maintain pH</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main component of the phosphate buffer system in the extracellular fluid?

<p>Dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the pH of a basic solution?

<p>Greater than 7</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the reaction between excess H+ ions and excess hydroxide ions in a solution?

<p>Formation of water</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristics of Sarah's skin based on the assessment of her vital signs?

<p>Cool and clammy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of dihydrogen phosphate combining with hydroxide ions?

<p>Formation of water and monohydrogen phosphate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of excess hydrogen ions in a solution?

<p>The pH decreases</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of monohydrogen phosphate in acid-base balance?

<p>It combines with excess hydrogen ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the definition of an acid?

<p>A molecule that can release an H+</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three major mechanisms that help to control acid-base balance within the body?

<p>The carbonic acid equation, the respiratory system, and the renal system</p> Signup and view all the answers

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