10_Digestive System_Accessory Organs and Clinical Anatomy

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Which organ produces bile and helps with the digestion of lipids?

Liver

Which organ stores, concentrates, and releases bile?

Gallbladder

Which organ produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate that are released in the duodenum?

Pancreas

What is the function of bile in the small intestine?

Emulsification of lipids

Which ligament separates the right and left lobes of the liver?

Falciform ligament

What is the remnant of the umbilical vein in the liver called?

Round ligament of the liver

How many primary lobes does the liver have?

2

Which organ is next to the inferior vena cava in the liver?

Caudate lobe

Which organ is next to the gallbladder in the liver?

Quadrate lobe

Where do arteries, veins, and lymph vessels enter and leave the liver?

Porta hepatis

Which organ is responsible for storing, concentrating, and propelling bile into the duodenum?

Gallbladder

What is the function of the pancreas?

All of the above

What is the most common cause of ulcers in the stomach?

Bacterial infection

Which condition is characterized by the inflammation of the appendix?

Appendicitis

What is the procedure called in which the nerves and pulp of a tooth are removed and replaced with a filling and artificial crown?

Root canal

Which condition is characterized by the backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus?

Acid reflux

Which organ is responsible for the production of bile?

Liver

Which organ is retroperitoneal and has both endocrine and exocrine functions?

Pancreas

What is the most common location for diverticula to occur?

Colon

What is the direction of bile flow in the liver?

From hepatocytes to bile canaliculi

Which condition is characterized by the inflammation of diverticula?

Diverticulitis

What are the symptoms of diverticulitis?

Abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and a change in bowel habits

What can be a treatment option for diverticulitis?

Rest, a liquid or low-fiber diet, and antibiotics

What is the most common location for colorectal cancer?

Descending colon

What are the risk factors for gallstones?

Obesity, age, female sex hormones, and lack of physical activity

What is the treatment for gallstones?

Removal of the gallbladder

What is the first stage of liver pathology called?

Fatty liver

What is the irreversible late stage fibrosis of the liver called?

Cirrhosis

What can cause pathology to the liver?

Hepatitis, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, or genetic inheritance

What can polyps in the colon potentially develop into?

Colorectal cancer

Diverticulosis is the inflammation of diverticula.

False

Diverticulitis can be harmful and may require surgery.

True

Low-fiber diets are linked to the formation of polyps in the colon.

True

Most polyps in the colon become cancerous.

False

Colorectal cancer can form metastasis in other organs.

True

Hepatitis can cause fatty liver and inflammation of the liver.

True

Fibrosis is a reversible stage of liver damage.

False

Gallstones are more common in men and in developing countries.

False

Cholecystectomy is the removal of the pancreas.

False

After cholecystectomy, a low-fat diet is usually recommended.

True

True or false: The liver is divided into hexagonal hepatic lobules made by hepatocytes.

True

True or false: A portal triad in the liver contains a bile duct, a branch of the hepatic vein, and a branch of the hepatic artery.

True

True or false: Blood and bile flow in the same direction through the liver.

False

True or false: The gallbladder stores, concentrates, and propels bile into the duodenum.

True

True or false: The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

True

True or false: Tooth decay is caused by bacteria in the mouth that produce acids which attack the enamel.

True

True or false: Acid reflux occurs when acid comes back up from the stomach into the esophagus.

True

True or false: Ulcers are most commonly found in the stomach and are often caused by an infection of Helicobacter pylori.

True

True or false: Diverticula are out-pockets of the intestinal wall and are most common in the sigmoid colon.

True

True or false: Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix, typically caused by fecal matter obstructing the appendix.

True

True or false: The liver produces bile, detoxifies blood, and stores excess nutrients absorbed by the GI tract.

True

True or false: The gallbladder stores, concentrates, and releases bile.

True

True or false: The pancreas produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate that are released in the duodenum.

True

True or false: Bile is made by hepatocytes in the liver and is stored and secreted by the gallbladder into the small intestine.

True

True or false: The liver is made up of four incompletely separated lobes, including the right lobe, left lobe, caudate lobe, and quadrate lobe.

True

True or false: The falciform ligament separates the right and left lobes of the liver.

True

True or false: The porta hepatis is where arteries, veins, and lymph vessels enter and leave the liver.

True

True or false: Bile helps with the emulsification of lipids in the small intestine.

True

True or false: The liver produces approximately 1 liter of bile per day.

True

True or false: The liver is supported by five ligaments, including the falciform ligament, round ligament of the liver, coronary ligament, and two lateral ligaments.

True

Study Notes

Liver and Gallbladder

  • The liver produces bile, detoxifies blood, and stores excess nutrients absorbed by the GI tract.
  • The liver is divided into four incompletely separated lobes: right lobe, left lobe, caudate lobe, and quadrate lobe.
  • The falciform ligament separates the right and left lobes of the liver.
  • The porta hepatis is where arteries, veins, and lymph vessels enter and leave the liver.

Bile Production and Storage

  • Bile is made by hepatocytes in the liver and is stored and secreted by the gallbladder into the small intestine.
  • The liver produces approximately 1 liter of bile per day.
  • Bile helps with the emulsification of lipids in the small intestine.

Pancreas

  • The pancreas produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonate that are released in the duodenum.
  • The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

Digestive System

  • The small intestine is where most of nutrient absorption takes place.
  • Diverticula are out-pockets of the intestinal wall and are most common in the sigmoid colon.
  • Diverticulosis is the formation of diverticula, while diverticulitis is the inflammation of diverticula.
  • Symptoms of diverticulitis include abdominal pain, nausea, and fever.
  • Treatment options for diverticulitis include antibiotics and surgery.

Diseases and Conditions

  • Ulcers are most commonly found in the stomach and are often caused by an infection of Helicobacter pylori.
  • Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix, typically caused by fecal matter obstructing the appendix.
  • Acid reflux occurs when acid comes back up from the stomach into the esophagus.
  • Hepatitis can cause fatty liver and inflammation of the liver.
  • Fibrosis is a reversible stage of liver damage, while cirrhosis is the irreversible late stage fibrosis of the liver.

Other

  • The most common location for colorectal cancer is in the rectum.
  • Risk factors for gallstones include low-fiber diets.
  • Treatment options for gallstones include cholecystectomy, which is the removal of the gallbladder.
  • After cholecystectomy, a low-fat diet is usually recommended.

Test your knowledge on the accessory organs of the digestive system with this quiz. Explore the functions of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas in chemical digestion.

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