Liver Review
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Liver Review

Test your knowledge of abdominal sonography terminology by identifying structures in a transverse scanning plane image of the midepigastrium.

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Questions and Answers

What is the only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum?

Bare area

Which ligament divides the right and left lobes of the liver, ending at the ligamentum teres?

Falciform ligament

What is the smallest lobe of the liver, bordered by the fossa for the inferior vena cava (IVC), falciform ligament, and lesser omentum?

Caudate lobe

Which artery supplies the liver and divides into the GDA and PHA?

<p>Common Hepatic Artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the communication between the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum called?

<p>Epiploic Foramen of Winslow</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the division of liver segments based on hepatic or portal venous anatomy, used for dividing the liver into 8 segments?

<p>Couinaud’s Liver Segmentation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lobe or segment of the liver is bordered by the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left portal vein (LPV)?

<p>Segment 1</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many main tributaries does the portal system supply to the liver?

<p>Three</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which segment of the liver is separated from segment 1 by the ligamentum venosum?

<p>Segment 2</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many segments are in the left hemiliver?

<p>Two</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which line divides the liver into a right and left hemiliver?

<p>Rex-Cantlie line</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lobe or segment of the liver is represented by segment 1?

<p>Caudate lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the three main tributaries of the portal system that supply blood to the liver?

<p>Splenic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric veins</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the main portal vein enter the liver?

<p>Through the porta hepatis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What artery supplies blood to the liver?

<p>Common hepatic artery</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many segments are in the right hemiliver?

<p>Four</p> Signup and view all the answers

What divides each hemiliver into an anterior and posterior segment?

<p>Lobar fissure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the two divisions of the main portal vein on the right side?

<p>Medial and anterior divisions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure marks the left anterolateral border of the caudate lobe and travels within the transverse fissure?

<p>Ligamentum Venosum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the protective, thin layer that encloses most of the abdominal organs called?

<p>Greater Sac</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure extends from the liver to part of the duodenum and is known as the omentum bursa?

<p>Lesser Sac</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is Reidel’s Lobe located in the liver?

<p>Right Lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the area of the hilus where the portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct enter called?

<p>Porta Hepatis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure forms the boundary of the bare area of the liver?

<p>Right Triangular Ligament</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Morison’s Pouch refer to in relation to the liver anatomy?

<p>Space between the posterior subphrenic and posterior subhepatic space</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure separates the caudate lobe from the left hepatic lobe?

<p>Left hepatic vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the functional unit of the liver?

<p>Portal triad</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vein separates the anterior and posterior segments of the liver?

<p>Hepatic vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

What divides the liver according to Couinaud's liver segmentation?

<p>Portal vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the falciform ligament located?

<p>Right side of the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the relationship between the left portal vein and the liver?

<p>Intersegmental boundary</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is located on the inferior surface of the liver in an H pattern?

<p>Gallbladder, liver segments, and hepatic veins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is significant about Couinaud's liver segmentation?

<p>Divides liver by portal veins and defines segments by venous anatomy</p> Signup and view all the answers

In a 1.8 cm liver tissue sample, how many portal triads are typically present?

<p>11</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the anatomical relationships mentioned in the text?

<p>Liver to diaphragm, gallbladder to common hepatic duct</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is functional segmentation of the liver significant?

<p>For surgical resections and other medical procedures</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the caudate lobe of the liver located?

<p>Proximate to the left portal vein anteriorly</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate weight of the liver in men?

<p>1500 g</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is closely related to the diaphragm?

<p>Left lobe of the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which region is the right lobe of the liver located?

<p>Anterolateral abdominal wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

What could lead to atrophy of the left lobe of the liver?

<p>Interference with the left portal venous supply</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is identified by its proximity to the inferior vena cava posteriorly?

<p>Caudate lobe of the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the right lobe of the liver located?

<p>Close to the anterolateral abdominal wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the left lobe of the liver mainly contain?

<p>Parenchymal tissue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What anatomical feature covers the caudate lobe of the liver?

<p>Peritoneum of the lesser sac</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some structures mentioned in relation to the liver and gallbladder?

<p>Inferior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is the left lobe of the liver described in terms of size and shape?

<p>Atrophic if interfered with inferior vena cava</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which fibrous capsule encloses the liver?

<p>Glisson's capsule</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the bare area of the liver in contact with?

<p>Diaphragm</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which surface of the liver is marked by indentations from the gallbladder, pylorus, and duodenum?

<p>Inferior surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organ rests on the posterior midportion of the inferior surface of the liver?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lobe of the liver lies close to the anterolateral abdominal wall?

<p>Right lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

What structure surrounds the liver?

<p>Inferior vena cava</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which vein drains into the portal vein?

<p>Superior mesenteric vein</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is located posterior to the liver?

<p>Pancreas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What marks the location of the caudate lobe of the liver?

<p>Groove that surrounds the inferior vena cava (IVC)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What rests on the upper posterior abdominal wall related to the right posterosuperior surface of the liver?

<p>Kidney</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is enclosed by a fibrous capsule called Glisson's capsule?

<p>Liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

What marks the location of the caudate lobe of the liver?

<p>The groove that surrounds the inferior vena cava (IVC)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical features with their relation to the liver:

<p>Bare area = In contact with the diaphragm Caudate lobe = Located below the porta hepatis Falciform ligament = Divides the right and left lobes of the liver Glisson's capsule = Encloses the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical features with their location or boundary in relation to the liver:

<p>Anterosuperior surface of the liver = Closest to the Anterior Left portal vein branch and Hepatic vein Inferior surface of the liver = Rests on upper abdominal organs, marked by indentations from various structures Right lobe of the liver = Located close to the anterolateral abdominal wall, related to the right midaxillary line Posterior midportion of the inferior surface = Marks the location of the caudate lobe</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical features with their specific relations to other organs or structures:

<p>Left portal vein (LPV) = Borders a lobe or segment of the liver Greater sac peritoneum = Covers most of the liver, except for a specific area Inferior vena cava (IVC) = Bordered by a specific lobe or segment of the liver Morison’s Pouch = Refers to a specific anatomical relationship related to the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver structure with its description:

<p>Gastrohepatic Ligament = A portion of the lesser omentum that extends across the transverse fissure for the ligamentum venosum at the porta hepatis of the lesser curvature of the stomach. Greater Omentum = A fold of omentum that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach and covers the intestines. Quadrate Lobe = The “fourth” lobe of the liver, which is actually the medial portion of the left lobe. Proper Hepatic Artery = A division of the common hepatic artery that supplies the liver.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver vein with its drainage area:

<p>Left Hepatic Vein = Drains the left lobe. Middle Hepatic Vein = Drains a portion of the right and medial left lobes. Right Hepatic Vein = Drains the right lobe. Main Portal Vein = Carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver space or area with its location or description:

<p>Morison’s Pouch = Space between the posterior subphrenic and posterior subhepatic space, should be free of fluid. Bare Area = The only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum. Transverse Fissure = A fissure that conveys the ligamentum venosum. Lesser Sac = A small sac posterior to the stomach and anterior to the pancreas and part of the transverse colon, also known as the omentum bursa.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical structures with their locations in the abdominal region:

<p>Right lobe of the liver = Close to the anterolateral abdominal wall Caudate lobe = Related to the lumbar region Inferior vena cava = Identified by its proximity to the caudate lobe Superior mesenteric vein = Mentioned in relation to the liver and gallbladder</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following peritoneal divisions with their respective functions and borders:

<p>Greater sac = Function and borders mentioned in the text Lesser sac = Function and borders mentioned in the text Omental bursa = Function and borders mentioned in the text Peritoneal divisions not discussed in the text = Not covered in the text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following statements with the correct description of the left lobe of the liver:

<p>Closely related to the diaphragm = Description provided in the text Located anterior to the body and pancreas = Description provided in the text May be atrophic under certain conditions = Description provided in the text Contains approximately two thirds of parenchymal tissue = Description provided in the text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following veins with their respective locations in relation to the liver and gallbladder:

<p>Inferior mesenteric artery = Mentioned in relation to liver and gallbladder Splenic vein = Mentioned in relation to liver and gallbladder Left portal vein = Mentioned in relation to liver and gallbladder Right portal vein = Mentioned in relation to liver and gallbladder</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical relationships with their corresponding descriptions:

<p>Left lobe of the liver and interference with left portal venous supply = Relationship described in the text Caudate lobe and peritoneum of lesser sac = Relationship described in the text Right lobe of the liver and its location = Relationship described in the text Liver and variations in size and shape = Relationship described in the text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical divisions with their respective weights for men and women:

<p>Liver weight range for men = Weight range provided in the text Liver weight range for women = Weight range provided in the text Right lobe weight compared to left lobe = Information on relative sizes provided in the text Atrophy of left lobe due to interference with blood supply = Condition leading to atrophy as mentioned in the text</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following liver lobes with their segments:

<p>Right lobe = Anterior and posterior segments Left lobe = Lateral and medial segments Caudate lobe = Separated from the left hepatic lobe by the left hepatic vein and the fissure for the ligamentum venosum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical features with their locations on the liver's inferior surface:

<p>Gallbladder = Left side Hepatic veins = Separates the anterior and posterior segments Liver lobes and segments = H pattern</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical structures with their relationships to the liver:

<p>Gallbladder = Anatomical position on the left side Falciform ligament = On the right side Hepatic artery and common bile duct = Not applicable Inferior vena cava = Anatomical relationship</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical features with their roles in the functional segmentation of the liver:

<p>Hepatic veins = Separating the anterior and posterior segments Portal veins = Intersegmental boundary Common bile duct = Not applicable</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical concepts with their descriptions:

<p>Portal triads = Functional units of the liver Couinaud's liver segmentation = Divides the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following anatomical relationships with their descriptions:

<p>Diaphragm = Anatomical relationship to the liver Inferior vena cava = Anatomical relationship to the liver Bare area of the liver = Contact with Morison’s Pouch = Related to liver anatomy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver segments with their corresponding anatomical features:

<p>Segment 1 = Bordered by the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left portal vein (LPV) Segment 2-4 = Located in the left hemiliver and separated from segment 1 by the ligamentum venosum Segments 5-8 = Located in the right hemiliver and separated by the main lobar fissure and the middle and right hepatic veins Caudate lobe = Marked by indentations from the gallbladder, pylorus, and duodenum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver's blood supply components with their respective features:

<p>Portal system = Supplies 75% of the liver's total blood flow and has tributaries including the splenic, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric veins Main portal vein = Enters the liver through the porta hepatis and divides into left and right branches, which then branch into medial and lateral divisions on the left and anterior and posterior divisions on the right Common hepatic artery = Supplies blood to the liver as a branch of the celiac axis of the aorta Portal triad = Each liver segment has a distinct portal triad, which is independent of the others</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the liver's anatomical divisions with their corresponding features:

<p>Right hemiliver = Further divided into inferior and superior segments Left hemiliver's anterior segment = The only one divided into superior and inferior segments Rex-Cantlie line = Divides the liver into a right and left hemiliver by passing through a portion of the caudate lobe Couinaud's segmentation system = Divides the liver into segments, each with a distinct portal triad, independent of others</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following liver ligaments with their descriptions:

<p>Falciform Ligament = Divides right and left lobes; ends at the ligamentum teres or round ligament inferiorly Coronary Ligament = Anterosuperior surface of liver that runs superiorly, then posteriorly on the right to the anterior leaf of the coronary ligaments Lesser Omentum = Bordered by fossa for the inferior vena cava (IVC), falciform ligament, and lesser omentum Ligamentum Teres = Only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following liver segments with their descriptions:

<p>Caudate Lobe = Smallest lobe of the liver, bordered by fossa for the inferior vena cava (IVC), falciform ligament, and lesser omentum Couinaud’s Segment 1 = Division of liver segments based on hepatic or portal venous anatomy; used for dividing the liver into 8 segments Bare Area = Only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum Epiploic Foramen of Winslow = Communication between the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following liver blood vessels with their descriptions:

<p>Common Hepatic Artery = Branch of the celiac axis that supplies the liver and divides into the GDA and PHA Portal Vein = Main vessel that brings blood to the liver from the gastrointestinal tract Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) = Vessel that borders the caudate lobe and separates it from other lobes Hepatic Veins = Drains blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms related to liver anatomy with their descriptions:

<p>Bare Area = Only area of the liver not covered by peritoneum Couinaud’s Liver Segmentation = Division of liver segments based on hepatic or portal venous anatomy; used for dividing the liver into 8 segments Epiploic Foramen of Winslow = Communication between the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum Glisson's Capsule = Fibrous capsule that encloses the liver</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following structures related to liver vasculature with their descriptions:

<p>Common Hepatic Artery = Supplies blood to the liver and divides into the GDA and PHA Portal Vein = Brings blood to the liver from the gastrointestinal tract Hepatic Veins = Drains blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava Falciform Ligament = Divides right and left lobes; ends at the ligamentum teres or round ligament inferiorly</p> Signup and view all the answers

Match the following terms related to liver anatomy with their descriptions:

<p>Caudate Lobe = Smallest lobe of the liver, bordered by fossa for the inferior vena cava (IVC), falciform ligament, and lesser omentum Coronary Ligament = Anterosuperior surface of liver that runs superiorly, then posteriorly on the right to the anterior leaf of the coronary ligaments Couinaud’s Liver Segmentation = Division of liver segments based on hepatic or portal venous anatomy; used for dividing the liver into 8 segments Epiploic Foramen of Winslow = Communication between greater and lesser sacs of peritoneum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

  • The right anterosuperior surface of the liver is closest to the Anterior Left portal vein branch and Hepatic vein.

  • The liver is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, with the right lobe being the larger portion.

  • The liver is enclosed by a fibrous capsule called Glisson's capsule and is covered by the peritoneum of the greater sac, except for the bare area which is in contact with the diaphragm.

  • The major relations of the right posterosuperior surface are the right posterior fibers of the diaphragm, the upper posterior abdominal wall, the right kidney, and the right adrenal gland.

  • The inferior surface of the liver rests on the upper abdominal organs and is marked by indentations from the gallbladder, pylorus, duodenum, right colon, right hepatic flexure of the colon, right third of the transverse colon, right adrenal gland, and right kidney.

  • The left side of the inferior surface contains a gastric indentation and the posterior surface is marked by the groove that surrounds the inferior vena cava (IVC).

  • The posterior midportion of the inferior surface, below the porta hepatis, marks the location of the caudate lobe.

  • The right lobe of the liver lies close to the anterolateral abdominal wall and is related to the right lateral undersurface of the diaphragm along the right midaxillary line.

  • The liver is surrounded by the inferior vena cava, superior portal vein, inferior portal vein, and inferior portal confluence.

  • The liver's anterior superior mesenteric vein drains into the portal vein, while the uncinate process of the pancreas is located posterior to the liver.

  • The liver is divided into segments using Couinaud's segmentation system.

  • The liver is divided into a right and left hemiliver by the Rex-Cantlie line, which passes through a portion of the caudate lobe.

  • Each hemiliver is further subdivided into an anterior and posterior segment.

  • The right hemiliver is further divided into inferior and superior segments, while the left hemiliver's anterior segment is the only one divided into superior and inferior segments.

  • The caudate lobe, represented by segment 1, is bordered by the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left portal vein (LPV).

  • Segment 1 is separated from segment 2 by the ligamentum venosum, and segments 2-4 are in the left hemiliver.

  • Segments 5-8 are in the right hemiliver and are separated by the main lobar fissure and the middle and right hepatic veins.

  • Each segment has a distinct portal triad, which is independent of the others.

  • The liver receives blood from the portal system, which supplies 75% of its total blood flow and has three main tributaries: the splenic, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric veins.

  • The main portal vein enters the liver through the porta hepatis and divides into left and right branches, which then branch into medial and lateral divisions on the left and anterior and posterior divisions on the right.

  • The liver is also supplied with blood via the common hepatic artery, a branch of the celiac axis of the aorta.

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