Risk factors

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Which of the following best describes a risk factor according to Mrazek and Haggerty?

A characteristic that makes it more likely for an individual to develop a disorder

Which of the following is not a somatotype based on the text?


Which somatotype is characterized by a heavy build and a soft and round body shape?


What are criminogenic risk factors?

Factors associated with criminal activities

Which somatotype has a personality that is characterized as introverted, hypersensitive, and intellectual?


Which of the following is a criminogenic risk factor associated with the causation of crime?

Individual factors

What is the focus of exploring individual criminal risk factors?

Socialization process of the child into adulthood

What is the role of genes in criminal causation?

Genes can instill a predisposition towards certain behavioral traits

What is an example of the role that hereditary factors can play as a criminogenic risk factor?

Criminal behavior in parents

What is the relationship between genetics and environmental influences in criminal causation?

Environmental influences will act as triggers of genetic predispositions

According to Sheldon's somatotypes, which body type is mainly associated with delinquent boys?


What are some of the criminal risk factors associated with genetics?

Personality and temperament

What is the primary criticism of Sheldon's research on somatotypes?

It ignores the influence of socialization and cognition on criminal behavior

Which body type is characterized as relaxed, extroverted, and relatively non-criminal according to Sheldon's somatotypes?


What is Stratts' opinion on the relationship between genetics and criminality?

Genetics alone can predispose a person to criminal behavior

According to Lykken, which of the following is NOT one of the principal components of socialisation?

Rejection of crime

What is the basis of a person's pro-sociality, according to the text?

Their ability to empathise with others

What is the main focus of acceptance of adult responsibility?

Promoting pro-social rules and values

What role do agents of socialisation play in shaping people's behaviour and values?

They can influence both positive and negative behaviour

What inborn characteristics can make it harder to successfully socialise a child, according to Lykken?


What is the definition of personality?

A person's unique behavior pattern including emotions and thoughts

What is the indirect link between IQ and criminal behavior according to the text?

Lower IQ can lead to frustration and a predisposition to criminal behavior

What are the temperamental components according to the text?

Mood, activity level, sociability, reactivity, and effect

What is the debate about the link between IQ and criminality according to the text?

Controversial and has still not been conclusively proven

What do Kuperminc and Allen's findings suggest about how individuals resolve challenges in life?

They use genetic and inherited personality traits in correlation with environmental factors and previous experiences

Which of the following is a personality trait strongly linked to criminal behavior according to Hill (2002)?


What is the definition of a disorder according to Hill (2002)?

Behavior that is influenced by genetics and environment

What is the impact of physiological disorders on human behavior according to Hunter and Dantzker (2002)?

Biological and psychological influence

What can result from psychological disorders according to Walsh (2015)?

Truancy and juvenile delinquency

What is the definition of socialization according to Barkan (in Schoeman, 2002)?

Acquired behavior that enables a person to conform to society's rules and expectations

Test your knowledge about intelligence as a risk indicator for criminal behavior with this quiz. Learn about the correlation between IQ and delinquency, and explore different perspectives on the topic from social scientists. Keywords: intelligence, risk indicator, criminal causation, delinquency, IQ.

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