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# Validity & Reliability in Research

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@HumorousMaroon

### Match the types of reliability with their descriptions:

Inter-item reliability = Association of answers to set of questions designed to measure the same concept Parallel form of Reliability = Splitting the test into two parts using the odd-even strategy Split-Half Reliability = Method especially appropriate for very long tests Inter observer Reliability = Correspondence between measures made by different observers

### Match the following terms with their definitions:

Equivalence Reliability = Administering the same questionnaire at different times to test consistency Validity = Accuracy of measurement Reliability = Consistency of measurement Cronbach's alpha = Statistic used to measure inter-item reliability

### Match the following concepts with their roles in testing:

Validity = Pertains to accuracy of measurement Reliability = Prerequisite for measurement of validity Equivalence Reliability = Indicates score variation from testing session errors Split-Half Reliability = Represents reliability of a test only half as long as the actual test

### Match the types of reliability measures with their scenarios:

<p>Inter-item reliability = Association of answers to questions measuring the same concept on a questionnaire Parallel form of Reliability = Splitting a test into two parts using the odd-even strategy Inter observer Reliability = Comparison between measures taken by different observers Split-Half Reliability = Method used when a test is very long</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the type of validity with its description:

<p>Face Validity = Refers to the extent to which a test or measure appears to measure what it is intended to measure Content Validity = Assesses whether a test adequately covers a representative sample of the domain it is supposed to measure Reliability = Refers to the consistency, stability, or repeatability of a measurement instrument or test Stability Reliability = Type of reliability that includes Test-retest reliability</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the types of reliability with their descriptions:

<p>Equivalence Reliability = A type of reliability assessment Stability Reliability = Type of reliability that includes Test-retest reliability Test-retest Reliability = Degree to which scores are consistent over time Inter-rater Reliability = Agreement among different observers when they rate the same set of individuals</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the methods used to assess reliability with their definitions:

<p>Test-retest Reliability = Assesses consistency over time by administering the same test on two occasions Inter-rater Reliability = Measures agreement among different observers rating the same individuals Internal Consistency Reliability = Evaluates how well different items in a test measure the same construct Parallel Forms Reliability = Compares two different forms of a test designed to measure the same construct</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the types of validity/reliability with their examples:

<p>Face Validity = When a survey on customer satisfaction appears to measure customer opinions Content Validity = Ensuring a math test covers various topics taught in the course Test-retest Reliability = Administering a psychological assessment twice to the same group and comparing results Inter-rater Reliability = Two teachers grading the same set of exams and comparing their scores</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the type of validity with its description:

<p>Internal Validity = Occurs when it can be concluded that there is a causal relationship between the variables being studied. External Validity = Occurs when the causal relationship discovered can be generalized to other people, time, and contexts. Content Validity = Determines if the entire content of the behavior/construct/area is represented in the test by comparing the test task with the content of the behavior. Face Validity = Concerned with whether a test appears to measure what it is intended to measure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the type of validity with its focus:

<p>Criterion Validity = Focuses on establishing the relationship between test scores and a criterion measure. Predictive Validity = Focuses on whether a test can predict future performance or behavior. Convergent Validity = Focuses on whether two measures that theoretically should be related are, in fact, related. Discriminant Validity = Focuses on whether measures that should not be related are actually unrelated.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the aspect of validity with its definition:

<p>Population Validity = Refers to the extent to which results can be generalized to a larger population beyond the sample studied. Ecological Validity = Refers to the extent to which findings can be generalized beyond the immediate context of the study. Concurrent Validity = Refers to the degree to which the results of a test correspond to those of a previously established measurement for the same construct. Test Validity = Refers to the overall degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match the type of validity assessment with its method:

<p>Criterion-related validity = Involves comparing test scores with an external criterion that is known to be related to what is being measured. Construct Validity = Involves examining how well a test measures a theoretical construct or trait. Content Validity = Involves evaluating if a test covers a representative sample of the behavior domain it is supposed to measure. Convergent Validity = Involves checking if two measures that are theoretically supposed to be related are, in fact, correlated.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match each type of validity with its importance in research:

<p>Internal Validity = Critical for establishing a cause-effect relationship within a study's sample. External Validity = Essential for generalizing research findings beyond the specific study sample. Content Validity = Crucial for ensuring that a test accurately represents all aspects of the construct being measured. Convergent Validity = Important for confirming that different measures of the same construct are indeed related.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Match each type of validity with an example:

<p>Face Validity = A survey on happiness that appears to measure happiness based on questions asked. Predictive Validity = A pre-employment test that predicts job performance accurately based on test scores. Discriminant Validity = A study showing that anxiety levels are not correlated with self-esteem measures as expected. Ecological Validity = An experiment conducted in a laboratory setting that can be applied to real-world scenarios.</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Validity

• Validity refers to the degree to which a test or measurement accurately measures what it claims to measure.
• It assesses whether a test actually measures the underlying construct or concept it purports to measure.
• Types of validity include:
• External validity: enables generalization of findings to other people, time, and contexts.
• Internal validity: ensures a causal relationship between variables being studied.
• Content validity: ensures the test adequately covers a representative sample of the domain.
• Face validity: refers to the appearance or perception of validity.
• Criterion validity: assesses whether a test is a good predictor of a specific outcome.
• Predictive validity: measures the ability of a test to predict a future outcome.
• Convergent validity: assesses the correlation between different measures of the same concept.
• Discriminant validity: assesses the ability of a test to distinguish between different concepts.
• Ecological validity: measures the degree to which a test reflects real-life situations.
• Concurrent validity: measures the correlation between a test and a criterion measure.

### Reliability

• Reliability refers to the consistency, stability, or repeatability of a measurement instrument or test.
• It assesses the degree to which the same measurement, under the same conditions, yields consistent results over time.
• Types of reliability include:
• Inter-item reliability (internal consistency): measures the association between answers to a set of questions.
• Parallel form reliability: measures the correlation between different forms of a test.
• Inter-observer reliability: measures the correspondence between measures made by different observers.
• Test-retest reliability: measures the consistency of scores over time.
• Equivalence reliability: measures the similarity between different forms of a test.

### Relationship between Validity and Reliability

• Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient condition for validity.
• Validity pertains to the accuracy of measurement, while reliability pertains to the consistency of measurement.

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## Description

Understand the concepts of validity and reliability in research, focusing on the importance of validity in accurately measuring constructs or concepts. Learn about different types of validity assessments such as content, criterion-related, and construct validity.

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