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Ancient Civilizations: Egypt and Civilization Development

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118 Questions

What is the name of the pharaoh who built the Great Pyramid of Giza?


The Old Kingdom was a period of droughts and chaos in ancient Egypt.


What was the significance of the Maat in ancient Egyptian religion?

Maat was the concept of order and balance in the universe, which was maintained by the gods if the people did their jobs.

The pharaoh who changed his name to Akhenaten and introduced monotheism in ancient Egypt was ______________________.

Amenhotep IV

Match the following pharaohs with their achievements:

Hatsheput = First female pharaoh, expanded Egypt through trade Ramses II = Built many temples Akhenaten = Introduced monotheism and created a new capital city

What was the significance of the Sphinx in ancient Egyptian architecture?

It had the face of a pharaoh

The Hyksos were a group of Egyptian nobles who fought for power.


What was the significance of the Vizier in ancient Egyptian government?

The Vizier was the chief minister who supervised the government and had specific departments reporting to them.

The ancient Egyptian calendar was based on a ______________________ day year.


What was the name of the pharaoh who died at the age of 17?


What is the main characteristic of the process of civilization?

All of the above

Ancient Egypt was mainly composed of deserts.


What is the name of the river that served as a transport system in Ancient Egypt?

Nile River

The Early Dynastic Period marked the beginning of '_____________' in Egypt.


Match the following periods of Ancient Egyptian history with their corresponding dates:

Old Kingdom = 2686 - 2181 BC 1st Intermediate Period = 2181 - 1991 BC Middle Kingdom = 1991 - 1650 BC

Who united Lower and Upper Egypt?

Menes aka King Narmer

The Pharaoh was considered a god during their lifetime.


What was the purpose of building the Pyramids?

Made for Pharaohs

The city of __________________ was established as the capital of Ancient Egypt.


What was the primary function of the Nile River in Ancient Egypt?

All of the above

What does 'Mesopotamia' mean in Greek?

Land between the rivers

The geography of Mesopotamia was similar to that of Egypt.


What was the social structure of Sumer like?

The social structure of Sumer consisted of Amelu (government officials, professional soldiers, and priests), Mushkins (working class), and Slaves (largest class).

The writing system developed by the Sumerians was called ______________________.


Match the following Sumerian achievements with their descriptions:

Cuneiform = Writing system developed by the Sumerians The Wheel = Invention that revolutionized transportation Lunar Calendar = Calendar based on the cycles of the moon Epic of Gilgamesh = One of the earliest surviving works of literature

What was the name of the temple towers built by the Sumerians?


The Sumerians believed in a monothestic religion.


What was the significance of the 'House of Dust' in Sumerian religion?

In Sumerian religion, the 'House of Dust' referred to the underworld, where people would eat dust for eternity.

The Sumerians invented the ______________________, which revolutionized transportation.


What was the purpose of the Lugal in Sumerian city-states?

To be government officials and professional soldiers

Who is considered the founder of Judaism?


The Torah is the holy book of Christianity.


What is the name of the covenant between God and Abraham?

Covenant with Yahweh

The first four commandments are focused on the relationship between humans and ______________________.


Match the following figures with their significance in Judaism:

Abraham = Founder of Judaism Isaac = Son of Abraham in Judeo-Christian world Ishmael = Son of Abraham in Islamic world Moses = _led the Exodus out of Egypt

How many commandments are there in the Ten Commandments?


Judaism is a polytheistic religion.


What is the estimated population of Jews in the world today?

14 million

The first five books of the Hebrew Bible are also known as the ______________________.


King David was the first king of Israel.


What was the main achievement of Sargon, the king of the Akkadians?

He was a superb military leader

The Babylonians were known for their conquests and bullies of Mesopotamia.


What was the main achievement of Hammurabi?

He created the Hammurabi's Code

The Hittites were known for discovering the use of _______________ in warfare.


What was the main characteristic of the Assyrian Empire?

They were known for their conquests and bullies of Mesopotamia

Match the following kings with their achievements:

Nebuchadnezzar = Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Babylonian Exile Hammurabi = Created the Hammurabi's Code Cyrus the Great = Conquered Babylon and ended the Babylonian Exile Sargon = Created the Akkadian Empire

The Lydians were a military power in ancient Mesopotamia.


What was the significance of the Royal Road in the Persian Empire?

It was a 1250-mile long road built for communication and trade

The Persian Empire was known for its system of government led by a king, also known as the _______________

King of Kings

What was the main characteristic of the Persian Empire's treatment of its people?

They were treated better than other empires

What is the name of the mountain range mentioned in the content?

Both A and B

The Indus River Valley Civilization was a peaceful society.


What was the significance of the Great Bath in the Indus River Valley Civilization?

It was the largest building in the city.

The Indo-Aryan Civilization entered through the _________ Pass.


What is the name of the religious text of Hinduism mentioned in the content?


The Indus River flooded regularly twice a year with the same amount of water.


Match the following castes with their occupations:

Brahmins = Priests Kshatriyarms = Warriors and rulers Vaisyas = Skilled workers

What is the significance of the Khyber Pass in the Indo-Aryan Civilization?

It was the entry point of the Aryans into India.

The Indus River Valley Civilization was known for its _________ system.


The Aryans were nomads who desired more cattle to herd.


What is the name of the trimurti in Hinduism?

Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva

Siddhartha Gautama was born into a lower caste family.


What is the concept of 'maya' in Hinduism?

illusions of the world

The Huang He or Yellow River is also known as the '_____________' River.

River of Sorrows

Match the following Chinese dynasties with their corresponding dates:

Shang Dynasty = 1600 - 1046 BC Zhou Dynasty = 1046 - 256 BC Qin Dynasty = 221 - 207 BC

What is the main concept of the 'Mandate of Heaven' in ancient China?

The ruler's power is justified by moral behavior

The Buddha rejected the caste system.


What is the concept of 'dharma' in Hinduism?

fulfilling one's mortal duty in India

The concept of 'anatta' in Buddhism means that the self is _______________.

not permanent

What was the name of the founder of the Han Dynasty?

Liu Bang

The concept of "Li" in Confucianism means following a set of rules and expectations on how to lead a country.


Who is the author of "The Art of War"?

Sun Tzu

The Chinese dynasty that came after the Qin dynasty was the ______________ dynasty.


Match the following Chinese philosophies with their founders:

Confucianism = Confucius Daoism = Laozi

Women had equal rights in ancient Chinese society according to Confucianism.


What was the name of the Indian ruler who created a set of ideas for ruling known as Arthashastra?


What were the four great inventions of ancient China?

Gunpowder, the compass, paper, and printing

The Indian emperor Ashoka converted to ________________ after witnessing the destruction of the Kalinga kingdom.


The Mauryan Empire was known for its unfair treatment of different religions and ideas.


What was the result of Ashoka's war with Kalinga?

Ashoka became horrified by the violence and vowed to become peaceful

The Gupta Empire was known as the "Golden Age" of India.


What was Chandragupta I known for?

Chandragupta I was known for conquering small kingdoms into one larger kingdom and earning the title of "King of Kings".

The Gupta Empire was founded in the early ______________________ AD.


Match the following Gupta Empire leaders with their achievements:

Chandragupta I = Conquered small kingdoms into one larger kingdom Samudragupta = Expanded the Gupta Empire and was a patron of the arts Chandragupta II = Sponsored famous mathematicians and made advancements in science and arts

The Gupta Empire was characterized by a period of disunity and chaos.


What was the significance of the "zero" recorded during the Gupta Empire?

The concept of "zero" was recorded for one of the first times during the Gupta Empire era.

What was the name of the game played in ancient India that involved a counselor, infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots?


The Gupta Empire was known for its advancements in ______________________, including plastic surgery and inoculations.


The Gupta Empire was characterized by a strict caste system that still exists in modern India.


What was the social structure of Spartans?

Spartiates, Perioikoi, and Helots

Athenian women could own property and attend public gatherings without permission.


What was the significance of Solon's laws in Athens?

Ended debt slavery and gave all citizens a vote

The Athenian government was divided into three separate institutions: the _______________, the Boule, and the Ecclesia.

Demos Kratia

What was the name of the goddess who became the patron deity of Athens?


Spartan boys were taken from their families to train at the age of 5.


What was the name of the council of elders in Sparta?

The Gerousia

The Spartan training period, known as the _______________, lasted for 13 years.


Match the following groups with their characteristics in Athenian society:

Citizens = Aristocrats or poor farmers, born in Athens Metics = Non-citizens, born outside of Athens Slaves = Valued for literacy and education

Who is credited with introducing democracy in Athens?


What is Thessaly known for in the context of Greece?

It's a region in northern Greece

The Minoans were known for their skills in sailing and trading.


What was the Linear A writing system used for?

The Linear A writing system was used by the Minoans for writing and recording information.

The Greek City-State of ______________________ was known for its rich commercial activities and control of communication between Attica Peninsula and the Peloponnese.


Match the following Greek City-States with their characteristics:

Sparta = Militaristic and Naturalistic Corinth = Known for its rich commercial activities Olympia = Religious center of Greece

What was the main reason for the Olympic Games in ancient Greece?

To honor the gods

The Minoan civilization was destroyed by a volcanic eruption and a tsunami.


What was the significance of the Agora in ancient Greek City-States?

The Agora was a marketplace in ancient Greek City-States where people would gather to buy and sell goods.

The Greek concept of Pan-Hellenization refers to a larger cultural understanding of Greece, but not necessarily political ______________________.


How did the Dikasteria, or general courts, select their members?

By choosing them by lot

The Greek city-states were united against the Persian invasion.


What was the significance of the Battle of Marathon?

The myth of Persia's invincibility was broken, and Athens received high praise.

The Greek general who led the Athenian army to victory at the Battle of Marathon was ______________.


What was the result of the Battle of Thermopylae?

A moral victory for the Greeks

The Athenian Golden Age was a period of decline and stagnation for Athens.


Match the following events with their descriptions:

Ionian Revolt = A rebellion against Persian rule Battle of Marathon = A decisive victory for the Greeks Battle of Thermopylae = A moral victory for the Greeks Xerxes' Revenge = A Persian invasion of Greece

What was the significance of the Delian League?

It was an alliance of city-states that paid office a salary and built the Parthenon and other buildings for Athens.

The Persian general who was defeated at the Battle of Marathon was ______________.


The Athenian navy was a key factor in the Greek victory against the Persians.


Study Notes


  • A society or place reaches an advanced stage of social development and organization
  • Characteristics: surplus of food and irrigation, cities and government, division of labor, calendar, and writing system

Ancient Egypt: Geography

  • Nile River: transport system, flooded every year with the same amount of water at the same time
  • Optimistic culture: believed in an afterlife that was generally positive
  • Bosin Irrigation: allowed for a lot of food and production with minimal work
  • 95% of Ancient Egypt was desert, with the Mediterranean Sea to the north

Sources about Ancient Egypt

  • Stone Tablets and Papyrus: sources of information about Ancient Egypt
  • Manetho and Herodotus: historians who wrote about Ancient Egypt
  • Rosetta Stone: helped decipher ancient Egyptian writing

History of Ancient Egypt: Chronology

  • Early Dynastic Period (3100 - 2686 BC): united Upper and Lower Egypt, established Memphis as the capital
  • Old Kingdom (2686 - 2181 BC): built pyramids, had a centralized government, and a strong pharaoh
  • 1st Intermediate Period: series of droughts, nobles fought over power, and 200 years of chaos
  • Middle Kingdom (2040 - 1750 BC): distinctly different from the Old Kingdom, new pantheon with Amun, and expansion through conquest
  • 2nd Intermediate Period: Hyksos conquered all of Egypt
  • New Kingdom (1550 - 712 BC): Egypt became an empire, expanded through trade and military conquest

The Old Kingdom

  • Pyramids: built by peasants, using levers, pulleys, and water power, for pharaohs who became gods upon death
  • Famous Pyramids: Step Pyramid (Pharaoh Zoser/Djoser), Great Pyramid of Giza (Pharaoh Khufu), and the Sphinx (Pharaoh Khafre)

Old Kingdom: Religion, Writing, and the End

  • Pantheon/Polytheism: many gods, including Ra, Osiris, Isis, and Set
  • Maat: the concept of balance and order in the universe
  • Writing: hieroglyphics, demotic, and hieratic scripts
  • Divine kingship: pharaohs had the right to rule from the gods

Ancient Egyptian Government Structure

  • Pharaoh: held absolute power, played key roles in religion, and was considered a god
  • Vizier: chief minister who supervised the government
  • Specific Departments: reported to the vizier about tax collection, farming, and irrigation
  • Scribes: reported and carried out the vizier's instructions

Ancient Egyptian Social Hierarchy

  • Pharaoh: the royal family
  • Government officials: high priests, priestesses, and nobles
  • Merchants, Scribes, and artisans: a small class
  • Peasants and farmers: made up the largest group

The Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period

  • New pantheon with Amun as the leader
  • Conquest of new territories, but eventually, Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos
  • Egyptians developed new weapons, retaking the land

The New Kingdom

  • Egypt became an empire, expanding through trade and military conquest
  • Hatsheput: first female pharaoh, expanded Egypt through trade
  • Amarna Period: Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) introduced monotheism, created a new god, Aten
  • Akhenaten's changes: created a feared police force, built a new capital, Amarna
  • After Akhenaten's death, his son Tut took over, erasing Akhenaten's actions

New Kingdom: Pharaohs

  • Ramses II: one of the few great rulers, built many temples, and fought the Battle of Kadesh
  • King Tut: married his sister, had a cleft palate and scoliosis, and died at 17 due to a broken leg leading to gangrene and death

Geography of Mesopotamia

  • Part of the Fertile Crescent, Greek for "land between the rivers", referring to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
  • Unpredictable flooding led to a pessimistic society
  • No natural boundaries made it a crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe

Society and Culture

  • Polytheistic religion with violent and unpredictable gods
  • Humans were created to serve the gods
  • Writing: Cuneiform, with 600 symbols, invented around 3100 BC
  • Social Structure:
    • Amelu: government officials, professional soldiers, and priests
    • Mushkins: working class
    • Slaves: largest class
  • 2000 BC: Taxes were introduced, with a system where people could keep their earnings as long as they gave a cut to the government

Sumer (3300 - 1800 BC)

  • City-states, each independent like its own country
  • Run by Lugals or "Big Men"
  • Achievements:
    • Invented the wheel
    • Developed a lunar calendar
    • Created farm tools like the plow
    • Wrote the Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Indicates a culturally and technologically advanced civilization

Akkad (2300 - 2100 BC)

  • Famous king: Sargon, who created an empire and conquered Sumerian cities
  • Sargon's success was due to his superb military leadership, standing army, and archer corps
  • Eventually, the civilization ended around the same time as the Old Kingdom of Egypt

Babylon (1894 - 539 BC)

  • Combination of Sumerians and Akkadians through inter-marriage
  • Adopted many Sumerian beliefs, including the House of Dust or Darkness
  • Marduk: chief god, who defeated Tiamat (chaos)
  • Epic of Gilgamesh was also adopted from Sumerian achievements
  • Hammurabi's Code, a law code with "an eye for an eye" principle

Hittites (1600-1178 BC)

  • Discovered iron

Assyrian Empire (1800 - 627 BC)

  • Known as conquerors, with a meritocracy system where generals were chosen based on ability
  • Brutal towards their people, with a worldview that the world would end if they stopped conquering
  • Extended their empire beyond their roads

Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans) (626 - 539 BC)

  • Most important king: Nebuchadnezzar, who began as a successful general and eventually became king
  • Known for the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Babylonian Exile of Jews

Phoenicians (1500 - 300 BC)

  • A merchant power, not a military empire
  • Achievements:
    • Developed a 22-symbol alphabet
    • Used Murex shellfish to create purple dye
    • May have circumnavigated the tip of Africa

Lydians (1200 BC - 600 AD)

  • Introduced the concept of money, with the first coins made of gold and silver
  • Barter system, with commodities having value
  • King of Lydia introduced the concept of minted coins

Persian Empire (550 BC - 651 AD)

  • Government led by a king, with a system of taxes and loyalty
  • Treated their people better than other empires
  • Built roads, including the Royal Road, and had a postal system
  • Known for their army and empire-building
  • Most of what we know about them comes from other writers, like Herodotus

Persian Rulers

  • Cyrus the Great, who conquered Babylon and ended the Babylonian Exile
  • Darius I, who extended the Persian Empire to Anatolia
  • Xerxes I, who attacked the Greeks at Marathon and was famously defeated at Salamis

Prelude to Greco-Persian Wars

  • Persia forbade slavery and had a system of government and religion
  • Persia was not a terrible place to live, except for Greeks, who had too much pride
  • Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion, was the first to introduce the concept of a devil-like figure

Hebrews (1000 BC - today)

  • Founder: Abraham, who made a covenant with God
  • Son: Isaac, who led to the Judeo-Christian world
  • Son: Ishmael, who led to the Islamic world
  • Moses, who led the Exodus out of Egypt
  • Judaism:
    • Covenant with Yahweh
    • Torah, the holy book with the first five books of the Old Testament
    • The ten commandments, with the first four related to Yahweh and the last six related to self-restraint, human life, and family

Geography of India

  • Rivers: Indus and Sarawati, flooded regularly twice a year, but not in the same amount
  • Mountains: Himalayas and Hindu Kush, with the Himalayas being the "Home of the snow"
  • Good aspects: protection, food
  • Bad aspects: difficult to get through, unpredictable flooding

Indus River Valley Civilization

  • Culture: known from archaeology, no Rosetta Stone to decipher language
  • Cities: Harappa and Mohenjo Doro, with grid-like streets, multi-story structures, and natural air conditioning
  • Drainage/sewer system, with the Great Bath being the largest building in the city
  • Trading: seals found in Mesopotamia, cotton cloth, and peaceful people with little to no weapons
  • End of civilization: violent death, possibly due to conquest, earthquake, or environmental disaster

Indo-Aryan Civilization

  • Entered through Khyber Pass around 1800 BC
  • Conquered the Dravidians, with a possible invasion
  • Religous Text: Vedas, the most ancient text of Hinduism, written in sanskrit
  • Aspects of Religion:
    • Nature gods and polytheism
    • Immortality based on rituals over morals
    • Cremation of the dead
    • Brahmins (priests) and no specific place of worship
    • Religous Epics: Mahabharata and Upanishads

Caste System

  • Based on "Purusha"
  • 5 castes:
    • Brahmins (mouth): priests
    • Kshatriyarms (arms): warriors and rulers
    • Varsyas (thighs): Skilled workers
    • Sudras (feet): unskilled workers
    • Pariahs or Untouchables

Indo-Aryan Impact on North India

  • Social order
  • Sanskrit language used throughout India
  • Religious influences: base for Hinduism and Buddhism


  • Population: 1.2 billion
  • Key concepts:
    • Dharma: fulfilling one's mortal duty
    • Caste system determines duty
    • Samsara: reincarnation
    • Karma: good or bad deeds affecting reincarnation
    • Moksha: release from the reincarnation cycle
    • Ahimsa: non-violence
    • Yoga: clear the body and mind


  • Population: 521 million
  • Founder: Siddhartha Guatrama
  • Prophecy: leaving the palace and becoming a ruler
  • The Great Renunciation: dedicating life to finding truth
  • Main teachings:
    • 4 Noble Truths
      • Life includes suffering and sorrow
      • Desire/negative thoughts cause suffering
      • Renouncing pleasure frees one from suffering
      • 8 fold path leads to renunciation
    • 8 fold path: right views, intentions, speech, action, living, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
    • 3 Universal Truths:
      • Annica: everything is not permanent
      • Dukka: suffering is part of life
      • Anatta: the self is not permanent

Ancient China

  • Geography: Rivers, Huang He or Yellow River, and Chang Jiang or Yangtze
  • Other features: Himalayas, Gobi Desert, and thick jungles in Southeast China
  • Geographical isolation: developed own culture and identity
  • History: one of the first people to write down history, with the Shu jing, "Classic of History"

Shang Dynasty

  • Religion: Polytheism, with humans as parasites, and a focus on ancestor respect
  • Writing: 10000 different symbols, only accessible to the wealthy
  • Economy: Silk
  • End: taken over by the Zhou

Zhou Dynasty

  • Mandate of Heaven: ruler's moral behavior determines power
  • Longest Chinese dynasty, with a loss of power and states rebelling
  • Legend of King Yu: the boy who cried wolf

Qin Dynasty

  • Regained control after the warring states
  • Qin shi Huang: created the Great Wall of China and Terracotta Soldiers
  • Tomb had 8000 life-sized statues of soldiers, cavalry, and chariots
  • Greatest achievement: perhaps "China" comes from the Qin dynasty

Han Dynasty

  • China was divided after the fall of the Qin
  • Liu Bang: founder of the Han dynasty
  • Greatest emperor: Wudi Han (141-87 BC)
  • Expanded China into Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, and Central Asia
  • Made Confucianism the official teaching of the empire
  • Silk Road/Route: trade with Greece and Rome until the fall of the Han


  • Lived during the warring states (550-480 BC)
  • Created a philosophical and political system for stability
  • Philosophy not theology
  • Key concepts:
    • Look to the past for models of good
    • Know your place in a series of hierarchical relationships
    • Moral Emperors, stable society
    • Mandate of Heaven
    • Respect; family, elders, and ancestors
    • Concept of "Li": the Golden Rule


  • Founded by Laozi (500s BC)
  • Key concepts:
    • Tao: the way of nature
    • Yin: female, dark, cold, passive, death
    • Yang: male, light, warm, active, life
    • Dualism: balance in nature and civilization
    • Anti-materialism: withdraw to be in harmony with nature

The Art of War

  • Author: Sun Tzu
  • Key concepts:
    • Psychological warfare is key
    • Know your enemy and their weaknesses
    • Do difficult things when they are easy
    • The unemotional and calm warrior wins
    • Avoid war if all possible

Other Concepts

  • Women: Confucianism had little regard for women, with teachings on obedience, submission, and modesty
  • Four Great Inventions of Ancient China:
    • Gunpowder
    • The compass
    • Paper
    • Printing

Geography of Greece

  • Greece is divided into regions: Thessaly, Attica Peninsula, Pelopnnesus, and Crete
  • The country has a significant mountain range, which prevented a united Greece
  • There are no major rivers in Greece, but the sea is very important

Minoan Civilization (2000 - 1500 BC)

  • Named after the legendary King Minos of Crete
  • Known for:
    • Frescos: paintings made on wet pastels
    • Sailors and traders
    • Indoor running water
    • Linear A writing system
  • The Minoan civilization ended due to a volcanic eruption and tsunami

Mycenaean Civilization (1600 - 1100 BC)

  • Located on the Greek mainland
  • Known for:
    • Building walls
    • Conquering Crete
    • Linear B writing system
    • Dividing into tribes (city-states)
  • The Mycenaean civilization declined due to:
    • Major drought
    • Soil exhaustion
    • Natural disaster
    • System failure
  • This led to the Greek Dark Ages (1100 - 800 BC)

Greek City-States

  • A city-state is called a Polis
  • Greek city-states are based on:
    • Geographical territory
    • The community represented
    • Political and economic independence
  • Key components of a city-state:
    • Agora: marketplace
    • Acropolis: fortress and temple
    • Hinterland: villages surrounding the city
  • Important city-states include: Actium, Athens, Corinth, Delos, Delphi, Olympia, Sparta, Syracuse, and Thebes


  • Greeks sometimes refer to themselves as Greek
  • Pan-Hellenization refers to a larger cultural understanding, but not a unified political entity
  • Greek "things" include:
    • Literature: Iliad and Odyssey
    • Delos: temple to Apollo and Artemis
    • Olympia: religious center
    • Delphi: Oracle to find out your fate


  • One of the oldest and most important city-states
  • Controlled communication between the Attica Peninsula and Peloponnesus
  • Rich commercial city in Greece, developed colonies (e.g., Syracuse)
  • City-states fought for control of colonies


  • Olympia was the religious center of Greece
  • Best known for the Olympics, held every four years
  • The Pantellenic truce was announced during the games
  • Main reason for the games: to honor the gods
  • Open to any free Greek
  • Events included: Boxing, Running, Wrestling, and Pentathlon


  • Militaristic and Naturalistic society
  • Information about Sparta comes from what others have told us
  • Women in Sparta:
    • Treated better than in Athens
    • Could speak their mind
    • Could own land on their own
  • Social structure:
    • Spartiates: descendants of the original inhabitants
    • Perioikoi: inhabitants of land controlled by Spartans
      • Free, paid taxes, and served in the army
    • Helots: slaves, did all the work
  • Two ways to get a gravestone: die in battle or childbirth
  • Spartan life and training:
    • Birth: judged to see if they are "fit"
    • 5: men didn't see their kids until then
    • 7: boys taken from family to train (Agoge)
    • 13: put into the wilderness and expected to survive
    • 14-20: In Ephebes
    • 20-30: could get married, but couldn't live with their wives
    • 60: released from service
    • Training: Agoge (13 years training period)
      • Removed all comfort
      • All wore the same clothes
      • Walked without shoes
      • Food: broth and honey
      • Encouraged to steal, but punished if caught
      • Cheese and whips game

Spartan Government

  • Complicated system
  • 2 kings: 1 led the army, 1 controlled day-to-day affairs
  • The Gerousia (Council of Elders):
    • Proposed laws and general courts
    • Had to be over 60 years old
  • The Apella (Assembly):
    • All males over 30
    • Accepted or rejected the laws of the Council
  • Ephors:
    • 5 yearly elected officials
    • Kings are hereditary, Ephors hold a lot of power
    • Krypteia: the young men of Sparta


  • The legend of Athens:
    • Duel between gods: Athena vs. Poseidon
    • Athena became the patron goddess of the city
  • Athenian society:
    • Social structure:
      • Citizen: aristocrats or poor farmers
        • Had to be born in Athens
      • Metic: non-citizens
        • Born outside of Athens
      • Slaves
    • Valued literacy and education
    • Studied Iliad and Odyssey
    • 18-year-old: one year of military training
  • Simple homes
    • Believed wealth should go towards building for all people
    • No plumbing
  • Marriage:
    • Girls married at 13 or 14 to men twice their age
  • Athenian women:
    • Legally and socially inferior to men
    • Citizens but couldn't own property
    • Restrictions:
      • Stay out of sight when men had people over
      • Appear in public only with man's permission

Draco and Solon

  • 600 BC: laws were not written down, and judges were biased and corrupt
  • Draco:
    • Tasked with writing down the laws
    • Made laws more merciful, but still not just for all (especially the poor)
    • Debt slavery (Draconian Law)
  • Solon:
    • Asked to make new laws
    • Forgave the debts of Draco's system
    • Ended debt slavery entirely
    • Gave "every" citizen a vote and all could attend the Ecclesia (town hall meetings)
    • Led to the beginning stages of democracy

Athenian Democracy

  • Athens was once ruled by tyrants (kings)
  • 507 BC: Cleisthenes (father of democracy)
  • Introduced demos kratia or "rule of the people"
  • 3 separate institutions:
    • The Ecclesia: general assembly
    • The Boule: council of representatives (chosen by lot)
    • The Dikasteria: general courts
  • Not exactly like the US
    • Chosen by lot, not a lot of real "voting"
    • Direct democracy, not representative
    • Only males older than 18 could participate
    • Still an incredible significant and revolutionary way to govern a society

Democracy and Navy

  • Navy = Democracy
  • Triremes and Themistocles
  • Needed more people to row
  • Lines between classes were blurred
  • Metics: got citizenship if they joined the military
  • All people had to work together to get the ship to sail -> no one better/more important than the other
  • More people could participate in the democracy

The Greco-Persian War

  • Leading to war:
    • Greek city-states grew and developed without much interference
    • Persians conquered Greek city-states on the West Coast of Asia Minor (Ionia)
    • Persia conquered Ionia
    • Impressed by the Greeks, wanted them to be part of the Persia Empire
  • Ionian Revolt:
    • Athens supported the Ionians
    • Made Persia want to fight Athens

War: The Beginning

  • Darius crushed the Ionian Revolt
  • Darius invaded Greece for revenge on Athens
  • Athens supported the Ionian Revolt
  • Huge army
  • Intended to crush the Greeks forever
  • Athens was the target at Marathon
  • Persia told to fight there by Hippias (former Athenian Tyrant)
  • Athens heard of the attack and sent for help
  • Sent Pheidippides
  • Sparta didn't help
  • Athens got little to no support from other Greeks

Battle of Marathon, 490 BC

  • Athens outnumbered 3 to 1
  • Thin out their lines to appear weaker
  • Weak middle, strong flanks
  • Datis (Persian general):
    • Took some of his troops back to the ships to sail and attack Athens
  • Militades (Athenian general):
    • Ordered the attack
  • The battle:
    • Persians defeated the Greek center
    • Greek center was losing, but the flanks closed in around the Persians (Double Envelopment)
    • Eliminated the Persian numbers advantage
    • Victory for the Greeks
  • Aftermath:
    • Pheidippides:
      • Sent to Athens to tell of the victory
      • "Nike!" then died
    • Greek beat the Persians at Marathon and then made it back to Athens and waited for Datis to arrive
    • Persians were so scared they left

Xerxes' Revenge

  • Xerxes wanted to get revenge for his father's defeat
  • Used a boat bridge to cross the Hellespont to attack by land

Greek Problems

  • Greece was not united
  • Some even joined the Persians
  • 31/100 of city

Learn about the characteristics of a civilization and explore the geography of Ancient Egypt, including the Nile River and its significance in their society.

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