Physics Class: Kinetic Energy and Momentum

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19 Questions

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What is the physical quantity that is proportional to the square of the velocity of an object?

Kinetic energy

What is the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another?

Law of Conservation of Energy

What is the change in momentum of an object?

Impulse

What is the process of heat transfer through electromagnetic waves?

Radiation

What is the unit of power?

Watts

What is the formula for work done by a force applied over a distance?

W = Fd

What is the unit of impulse?

Newton-seconds

What is the process of heat transfer through direct contact between particles?

Conduction

What is the formula for kinetic energy?

KE = (1/2)mv^2

What is the law that states that total momentum remains constant in a closed system?

Law of Conservation of Momentum

Study Notes

Kinetic Energy

  • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
  • Formula: KE = (1/2)mv^2, where m is mass and v is velocity.
  • Units: Joules (J).

Conservation of Energy

  • Law of conservation of energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.
  • Total energy remains constant in a closed system.
  • Forms of energy: kinetic, potential, thermal, electrical, etc.

Momentum and Impulse

  • Momentum: product of an object's mass and velocity.
  • Formula: p = mv, where m is mass and v is velocity.
  • Units: kg m/s.
  • Impulse: change in momentum.
  • Formula: J = Δp, where J is impulse and Δp is change in momentum.
  • Units: Ns (Newton-seconds).

Heat Transfer

  • Methods of heat transfer: conduction, convection, radiation.
  • Conduction: transfer of heat through direct contact between particles.
  • Convection: transfer of heat through fluid motion.
  • Radiation: transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves.

Work and Power

  • Work: energy transferred through a force applied over a distance.
  • Formula: W = Fd, where F is force and d is distance.
  • Units: Joules (J).
  • Power: rate of doing work.
  • Formula: P = W/t, where W is work and t is time.
  • Units: Watts (W).

Newton's Laws of Motion

  • First Law (Law of Inertia): an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue to move, unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Second Law (F = ma): force is equal to the mass of an object multiplied by its acceleration.
  • Third Law (Action and Reaction): for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Free Fall

  • Acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.8 m/s^2 (on Earth).
  • Free fall: an object falling under gravity, with no air resistance.

Law of Conservation of Momentum

  • Total momentum remains constant in a closed system.
  • Momentum is conserved in collisions and explosions.

Momentum, Kinetic and Potential Energy

  • Momentum: product of mass and velocity.
  • Kinetic energy: energy of motion.
  • Potential energy: energy of position or stored energy.

Hooke's Law

  • F = -kx, where F is force, k is spring constant, and x is displacement.
  • Describes the relationship between force and displacement in a spring.

Law of Conservation of Energy

  • Total energy remains constant in a closed system.
  • Energy can be converted from one form to another, but not created or destroyed.

Work, Power, Efficiency

  • Work: energy transferred through a force applied over a distance.
  • Power: rate of doing work.
  • Efficiency: ratio of output energy to input energy.

Kinetic Theory of Matter

  • Matter is composed of tiny particles called molecules.
  • Molecules are in constant motion, with kinetic energy.

Brownian Motion

  • Random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (e.g. pollen in water).
  • Evidence for the kinetic theory of matter.

Heat and Temperature

  • Heat: energy transferred through temperature differences.
  • Temperature: measure of average kinetic energy of particles.

Boiling and Evaporation

  • Boiling: rapid vaporization of a liquid at its boiling point.
  • Evaporation: slow vaporization of a liquid at its surface.

Heat Capacity, Specific Heat Capacity, Latent Heat

  • Heat capacity: amount of heat energy required to change the temperature of an object.
  • Specific heat capacity: heat capacity per unit mass of an object.
  • Latent heat: energy required to change the state of an object (e.g. melting or boiling).

Momentum, Impulse

  • Momentum: product of mass and velocity.
  • Impulse: change in momentum.

This quiz covers the concepts of kinetic energy, conservation of energy, momentum, and impulse. It includes formulas and definitions related to these topics.

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