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distance exame

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109 Questions

Describe what you see

respiration = Steady, fast, slow, panting Body condition = Overweight, bony coat condition = matted, dirty, brushed, short hair gait = favouring one side, holding one paw above ground

What do you see?

vocalizing = What it sounds like Body = weight evenly distributed body posture = sitting, lying down, standing eyes = white showing, open, shut

Match the following words?

NAD = No abnormalities detected NSF = No significant findings BAR = Bright, Alert, Responsive QAR = Quiet, Alert, Responsive

Match the following words?

BCS = body condition score DUDE = drinking urinating defecating eating QAR = Quiet, Alert, Responsive BAR = Bright, Alert, Responsive

In a distance exam what is ideal?

During a distance exam ideally you want the animal to be unaware of you

what should you ensure before starting the distance exam?

safety of yourself and the animal

make sure all doors and windows are closed as well as all other animals are away before doing a distance exam.


what are physiological responses that you can see from a distance ?

Obvious wounds = can you see the blood, gashes, or discharge Eyes = BAR Respiration = animal in position to see it? was it steady? Body Condition = Does coat look good? shiny / patchy

What is the animals behaviour signs?

vocalization = making a noise or no noise tail = tucked in, tail alert Demeanour = Doing species typical behaviour. mouth = salvating, panting, closed, lip licking

What is the word we do not use to describe the animal?

Fine or Ok

Person sits with one arm in________ , other hand/arm over animal for safety.


What do you need to know first before you you can use terms like BAR?

what is normal for animal

You can make assumptions and describe what you see about the animal


Match the following health check methods with their purpose:

Dental assessment = Checking for signs of dental disease or oral abnormalities Blood screening = Detecting nutritional deficiencies and infection status Parasite testing = Identifying intestinal parasites or ectoparasites Internal investigation using imaging techniques = Diagnosing underlying medical conditions

When is it appropriate to perform a preliminary exam?

Whenever you need to assess the health of an animal

What does it involve in a distance exam?

Observation of the animal within its environment

What is the Cursory Physical Examination?

Nose to Tail or Nose to Toes

Distance Examination the following information will be needed : do you know how the species will likely react, what_________ they have and how to keep them & yourself _______from injury? May you need help?

weapons ,safe

Distance Examination The Demeanor ?

How is the animal interacting with its environment?

Match the following words

Posture = head, tail, ears, body Gait = lameness* Body condition, = coat/skin condition Wounds/Discharges = (eyes, nose, ears)– if you can see

What is important when doing the physical exam?


Physical Examination

Facial symmetry (droopy lips, crocked beak, swellings…?) = (droopy lips, crocked beak, swellings…?) Nose & nostrils = (discharges, odd sounds…?) Eyes clear and open = swelling, redness, discharge, squinting Ears open and clean = (smells, swellings, pus, redness, pain…?)

The ______ is the largest organ of the body!


match the breathing rate the the right animal

cat = 20 - 30 dog = 10 - 30 rabbit = 30 - 60 cattle = 26 - 50

Two ways to check for Hydration status

Gums should be moist, Skin pinch test

When an animal is in your care daily health checks are imperative.


A health check can be Nose to Tail or Nose to Toes.


Know your normals and assess for symmetry!


General animal handling principles

Always use the least amount of force necessary to achieve your aim

The first rule of animal handling is

Always close the exits (doors, windows, gates) before opening a cage or pen

Handling, restraining or chasing animals during hot weather can cause hyperthermia (increased body temperature)


Be aware that using sedatives, tranquilisers or anaesthetics can also interfere with the animal's ability to thermoregulate


When must two people carry a large dog

when a dog is over the weight of 20kg

A calm animal is not easier to handle


when attaching a muzzle ?

Always approach from the side and attach the muzzle from behind

less is more when restraining cats


cats struggle more when more pressure are applied


What must you do when you meet the cat for the first time?

introduce yourself

Removing a cat from a carrier

Try to encourage the cat to come out on its own

Lift them in to transport carriers tail-first (if possible)


Avoid scruffing cats whenever possible.


YOu can carry mice with their tails


Otherwise, can be picked up by the base of the tail and support the body


You can pick up a rabbit by its ears


What must always be done for rabbits?

ALWAYS support the hind quarters when picking up and holding a rabbit

Name four ways to carry a GP

Placing one hand under or around their chest area. Lifting and supporting their hind legs with your other hand. Holding them close to your body for security. Placing in the crook

What must not be done when you hold a bird

constrict the sternum

When constricting the sternum of bird what happens

This will interfere with their breathing, and can be fatal

what is a useful tool when managing birds


When working with parrots you must restrain the _______


Always support which part of the Rabbit


An animal can __________ when it is _______ or in ________

attack, scared pain

Be careful of applying to much force to small animals, you can injure them


What is a key observation to make during a distance examination for animal health assessment?

Observing the animal's typical behavior patterns

Why is measuring the animal's respiratory rate important during a distance examination?

To gain insight into the animal's respiratory function

What does a distance examination aim to achieve in terms of an animal's health assessment?

Gathering information about overall health without physical contact

Why is observing the animal's demeanor important during a distance examination?

To understand the animal's behavior state or mood

What role does alertness and responsiveness play in a general observational examination of animals?

Providing insights into an animal's health and interaction patterns

In a distance examination, what does paying attention to the animal's posture help with?

Observing how the animal positions itself during activities

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of distance examination techniques mentioned in the text?

Allowing invasive procedures for thorough examination

What is a primary advantage of distance examination techniques?

Minimizing stress and anxiety for animals

Which of the following statements about distance examination techniques is NOT true?

They provide a definitive diagnosis for all underlying conditions

What is a potential advantage of distance examination techniques for veterinary practices?

Reduced costs and improved efficiency

Which of the following is NOT a role of distant examination techniques?

Providing a definitive diagnosis for all conditions

Which of the following statements best summarizes the importance of distance examination techniques?

They play a vital role in assessing animal health and behavior

how would you health check mice and rats?

with one hand have a support hold, around the upper limbs and other hand around bottom hind limbs. Another handler performs health check

Why is it important to do a distance exam?

Want to assess the animal at the base rate.

Why is a distance exam important?

Before Human as stressor change the behaviour or physiological responses of the animal

What in the environment can you identify in the distance as a concern?

Food, feces, vomit, mould on food, too many animals

The aim with preliminary exams is to identify when veterinary help or medical treatment may be required and to describe the problems you see and to diagnose diseases.


What physiological responses can you look for in an animal to indicate their health?

Coat, Walking, Vocalization, breathing,

What are physiological responses of an animal?

Respiration, Obvious wounds, Body condition, Coat condition, Gait

What count as behaviour signs for an animal?

Demeanor. tail, eyes, vocalization, mouth, location, ears

How would you give a health check for a rat/mice after the distance exam?

with one hand in a supportive hold ( One hand around upper limbs and the other hand around bottom hind quarters) 2nd assistant will do the examination.

To roll an animal only one hand or a towel is needed


How would you check eyes?

pull eyelid up and down gently - do both eyes

When inspecting the eyes what are you looking for?

look for whites above eye, red below, foreign bodies, discharge, dirt

When looking at teeth ?

Are black, white, yellow, broken, bleading, smelling

When looking at mucous membranes what will the words be that you will use?

grey, pink, white, are they tacky / feel tacky

where can you test for CRT?

On mucous membranes

How do you test hydration status?

The pinch test / back of neck, grasp a handful of skin and release

It is preferred to move along the body in one go, because it is the fastest


When feeling over the skin for lumps and bumps the dogs will react if something is wrong .....

skin wrinkling will happen

When you get to tail and anus what should be done?

run hand over tail and look at anus for discharge, faeces, wounds

What is the purpose of acclimating animals to the environment where they will be handled for examinations?

To reduce stress levels and improve comfort during the examination process

Why is choosing the appropriate equipment important for animal examinations based on biological safety level (BSL) requirements?

To match the equipment design with the type of research being conducted

What is the primary reason for maintaining proper documentation of materials used during animal examinations?

To allow future reference and facilitate record-keeping

What is the recommended method for handling wild, jumpy, or aggressive rats?

Tunnel handling

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an advantage of cupping as a rat handling method?

Reduces anxiety levels in rats

What is the primary consideration when choosing a rat restraint technique?

Minimizing stress to the rat

Which of the following factors is NOT mentioned as influencing the choice of rat restraint method?

The handler's physical strength

What is the purpose of using a specialized tube in the tunnel handling method?

To guide the rat into the tube for lifting out of the cage

How can rats be restrained?

Thumb and ring finger around the armpits Index and middle finger around the jaw Support the hind quarters with the other hand

How can mouse be held?

By the tail, on a surface, By the scruff , Both the tail and scruff

Mice can be picked up by the base of the tail Between the base and the middle only


Its a good idea to carry a angry cat in a cage


Drape the towel over the cat while it is in the cage and scoop it up


Scuffing a cat is a great idea


How to carry a calm cat?

One hand under the chest with two fingers between the forelegs Hold the cat against your body with your arm. The other hand is free to pat or restrain if needed

Choose the correct size muzzle and adjust the strap size while putting it on the dog


After you have placed a muzzle it is important to NOT?

leave a dog unsupervised

DO NOT muzzle a dog when?

long periods in hot weather, or if the dog is vomiting.

When meeting a new dog what must you do?

Extend hand under chin (NOT OVER THEIR HEAD)

When will you change your handling method

Age,Size, State of health or injury, Nature or disposition

Allocate the correct match

Strong voice = deeper, firmer voice for instructions Quiet voice = higher pitched soothing voice to calm them Harsher voice = deeper, louder voice for corrections and commands voice = not what you say, how you say

NEVER convey the following emotions to animals

fear, anger, nervousness

When you are planning for the animal .....

Adapt your behavior to the species and their current state

Math the freedoms with the domains

Freedom from Discomfort. = Physical Environment Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease. = Health Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour. = Behavioural Interactions Freedom from Hunger and Thirst. = Nutrition

which are NOT a five freedom ?

Freedom from overcrowdedness

Study Notes

Handling Animals for Examination

  • Wear gloves to protect against direct contact with animal fluids, which can harbor pathogens
  • Ensure gloves are clean and free from residual chemicals that could harm animals or compromise test results
  • Sanitize equipment before use by cleaning them in accordance with manufacturer's instructions or institutional guidelines
  • Quarantine animals in a separate room prior to handling for examinations
  • Acclimate animals to the environment where they will be handled for examinations to reduce stress levels
  • Choose equipment based on biological safety level (BSL) requirements
  • Maintain proper documentation of materials used, including frequency and dates of transfer or disposal

Bird Examination

  • History taking is crucial for understanding the bird's condition, including signalment, environment, and behavior
  • Samples from birds may be collected for laboratory analysis, such as fresh droppings for mycology laboratory analysis
  • Keep parrots in a clean and hygienic environment to minimize the risk of fungal infections
  • Fungal contamination rates in birds can be high, but most fungi do not cause clinical manifestations
  • Antifungal treatments can be challenging due to variable pharmacokinetics, side effects, and resistance to antifungal agents

Rat Restraint Techniques

  • Traditional baseball hold is a common method for restraining rats, but care must be taken to avoid squeezing the thorax too tightly
  • Three-finger scruff hold is an alternative technique that reduces pressure on the throat area, reducing discomfort and stress to the rat
  • Tunnel handling involves guiding a rat into a specifically designed tube, reducing anxiety levels and stress responses
  • Cupping is a non-aversive handling method where the rat is picked up and out of the cage using cupped hands

Exotic Pets

  • Exotic pets require specialized care and health checks specific to their unique needs
  • Owners must consult experienced vets who understand the healthcare requirements of these species

Wildlife Health Checks

  • Wildlife health checks play a significant role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases
  • Monitoring and managing the health of wild animals can help protect human populations from zoonotic diseases and conserve ecosystems

Zoo Animals

  • Regular health checks for zoo animals ensure that they are not developing any diseases or conditions due to their confinement in captivity
  • Health checks involve physical examination, behavioral observation, and monitoring of animal husbandry practices

Health Check Methods and Techniques

  • Regular health checks involve various methods depending on the type of animal and its living environment
  • Techniques include external examination of the body condition score, dental assessment, palpable examination of organs and joints, internal investigation using imaging techniques or laboratory tests, and parasite testing
  • Remote sensing tools can monitor animal health without direct physical contact, tracking vital signs such as respiration rate, temperature, and activity levels

Benefits of Regular Health Checks

  • Early detection and prompt treatment of health concerns
  • Improved animal welfare and quality of life
  • Reduced incidence of zoonotic diseases spreading to humans and other animals
  • Better understanding of animal behavior and physiological needs
  • Enhanced public health protection against emerging infectious threats

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