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# Understanding Cardiac Output

Created by
@LustrousSerenity839

## Questions and Answers

CO = HR × SV

### How is heart rate typically measured?

Beats per minute (bpm)

### What is the influence of an increase in heart rate on cardiac output, assuming stroke volume remains constant?

An increase in heart rate leads to an increase in cardiac output

### How is stroke volume usually expressed?

<p>Milliliters per beat (ml/beat)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the influence of an increase in stroke volume on cardiac output, assuming heart rate remains constant?

<p>An increase in stroke volume results in an increase in cardiac output</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How is cardiac output expressed?

<p>In liters per minute (L/min)</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Cardiac Output Formula

• The formula for calculating cardiac output is: Cardiac Output (CO) = Heart Rate (HR) x Stroke Volume (SV)

### Measuring Heart Rate

• Heart rate is typically measured in beats per minute (bpm)

### Effects of Heart Rate on Cardiac Output

• An increase in heart rate, assuming stroke volume remains constant, increases cardiac output
• This is because the heart pumps more times per minute, leading to increased blood flow

### Expressing Stroke Volume

• Stroke volume is usually expressed in milliliters (mL) per beat

### Effects of Stroke Volume on Cardiac Output

• An increase in stroke volume, assuming heart rate remains constant, increases cardiac output
• This is because the heart pumps more blood per beat, leading to increased blood flow

### Expressing Cardiac Output

• Cardiac output is typically expressed in liters per minute (L/min)

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## Description

Learn about cardiac output and its components, including the calculation and factors influencing it. Explore the relationship between heart rate and stroke volume in determining cardiac output.

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