Transdermal Drug Delivery Quiz
12 Questions
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Transdermal Drug Delivery Quiz

Test your knowledge on the requirements for a drug to be suitable for transdermal delivery, clinical applications of complex suspensions, pathways for drug molecules to penetrate the stratum corneum, critical factors in forming emulsions, and rate-controlling membranes in drug patches.

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Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of the epidermis?

Acting as a barrier

How do creams differ from ointments in terms of water content?

Creams have a lower water content

What distinguishes a multi-layer drug in adhesive from a single-layer in TDDS?

Presence of multiple drug-containing layers

What are the primary functions of the hypodermis?

<p>Thermal insulation, shock absorption, energy storage</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are liniments typically applied?

<p>With friction to unbroken skin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterizes lotions in pharmaceutical forms?

<p>Liquid or semi-liquid with low viscosity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which skin layer is responsible for regulating drug absorption in transdermal drug delivery systems?

<p>Stratum corneum</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of a rate-controlling membrane in transdermal patches?

<p>Control the release rate of the drug</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which property of a drug molecule is essential for effective transdermal delivery?

<p>Sufficient lipophilicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary advantage of transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) over oral administration?

<p>Maintenance of stable drug levels</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of transdermal patch incorporates the drug in an adhesive matrix for controlled release?

<p>Matrix patch</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of emulsifying agents in pharmaceutical emulsions?

<p>Reduce interfacial tension</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDS)

  • A drug must have sufficient lipophilicity to be suitable for transdermal delivery.
  • TDDS provides stable drug levels, reducing the risk of side effects by minimizing peak-to-trough fluctuations.

Skin Layers

  • The outermost layer of the skin is called the epidermis.
  • The epidermis serves as a barrier.
  • The dermis consists of collagen, elastin fibers, and blood vessels.
  • The hypodermis, also known as the subcutaneous layer, consists of fat cells, connective tissue, and blood vessels, and provides thermal insulation, shock absorption, and energy storage.

Drug Penetration

  • There are two main pathways for drug molecules to penetrate the stratum corneum: intercellular and intracellular diffusion.
  • After penetrating the stratum corneum, drug molecules diffuse to the epidermis and dermis.
  • Molecular size, lipophilicity, and concentration gradient influence the diffusion of drug molecules through the skin layers.
  • The ultimate goal of drug molecules penetrating skin layers is absorption into systemic circulation.

Emulsions and Micelles

  • Emulsifying agents prevent the formation of large globules in emulsions by reducing interfacial tension and forming smaller globules.
  • Micelle structure is critical in forming emulsions and depends on factors like CMC.
  • Emulsifying agents play a role in the interfacial film theory by forming a thin layer at the oil-water interface.

Topical Dosage Forms

  • Ointments are semisolid preparations for external application, providing protective or emollient functions.
  • Pastes are semisolid forms with 20-50% API, typically made by trituration, with base types including hydrocarbon, water miscible, and water soluble.
  • Creams have a water content of more than 20%, and their texture, spreadability, and therapeutic properties are determined by their composition.
  • Lotions are liquid or semi-liquid with low viscosity, typically applied without friction using gauze.
  • Liniments are liquid or semisolid preparations applied with friction to unbroken skin, and can contain alcohol or oily emulsions.

Microneedle Arrays and Chemical Pleurodesis

  • Microneedle arrays facilitate drug delivery through microscopic needles that penetrate the stratum corneum.
  • The purpose of Chemical Pleurodesis is to prevent recurrent pleural effusion, using a talc slurry containing Steritalc and sodium chloride.

Transdermal Patches

  • A rate-controlling membrane separates the liquid drug formulation from the skin in patches.
  • Matrix patches dissolve the drug in a gel-based reservoir for controlled release.
  • A single-layer drug in adhesive has the drug incorporated into one adhesive layer, whereas a multi-layer drug in adhesive has multiple drug-containing layers.
  • Patch detachment or discomfort can be challenging in ensuring proper patch adhesion in transdermal drug delivery systems.

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