Thymus Gland Structure and Function

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30 Questions

Where do immature lymphocytes differentiate into T lymphocytes?

Thymus gland

Which organ collects antigens from the bloodstream?

Spleen

Where do mature T lymphocytes primarily locate in the spleen?

White pulp

During which developmental stage does the thymus gland increase in size?

Infancy

What is the primary function of the medulla in the thymus gland?

Migrate T lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs

Where do mature B cells primarily locate in the spleen?

White pulp

Which cells express MHC molecules on their surface?

Healthy cells

What is the role of MHC molecules in the activation of T cells?

Presenting foreign antigens to T cells

Why do mature red blood cells not express MHC molecules on their surface?

Due to lack of nucleus

What is the function of the deep groove in the outer region of MHC molecules?

Peptide-binding site

Why do key amino acid sequences in MHC proteins vary widely from person to person?

As identity markers on cell surfaces

Which diseases are mentioned as potentially involving overabundance of cytokines causing tissue damage?

COVID-19, influenza and Ebola virus disease

What is the main immunological function of the spleen?

Breaking down defective red blood cells and pathogens

Where are lymph nodes located in the body?

Groin, armpits, neck, and along the small intestine

Which layer of a lymph node contains mainly B cells?

Cortex

What type of tissues contain non-encapsulated small aggregations of lymphocytes?

Mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts

What is the role of MALT in the body?

Neutralizing pathogens before they enter the body

Which immune cells are mainly responsible for mounting immune responses in lymph nodes?

T and B lymphocytes

What is the purpose of fusing lysosomes with the phagosome?

Antigen processing

How do superantigens differ from protein antigens in terms of presentation to T cells?

Activate a large fraction of T cells directly

What is the consequence of activating large numbers of Th-lymphocytes by superantigens?

Excessive cytokine secretion

Which pathogen toxin is responsible for toxic shock syndrome?

Staphylococcal toxic shock toxin

What happens when cells become infected by intracellular pathogens like viruses?

MHC-I molecules collect peptides

Which type of T cells are recognized by MHC class I molecules presenting viral peptides?

CD8+ T cells

What is the term used to describe the second signal a T cell receives from an antigen-presenting cell to become activated?

Costimulation

Which molecules on the antigen-presenting cell (APC) bind with CD28 on the T cell to provide the second signal for T cell activation?

B7.1 and B7.2

In the humoral immune response, what are the main targets of antibody production?

Extracellular organisms

What is the main function of plasma cells in the immune response?

Secrete antibodies

Which type of cells costimulate B cells in the humoral immune response?

T helper cells

What is the observed physical sign of lymph node swelling usually indicative of?

Efficient immune response to infection

Learn about the structure and function of the thymus gland, a primary lymphoid organ where T lymphocytes differentiate. Explore its location, growth during fetal development, and atrophy with aging. Understand the composition of thymus lobules.

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