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The Roman Republic: Government and History

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Who ruled over Rome before the formation of the Roman Republic?

Etruscan kings

What was the primary role of the Assemblies in the Roman Republic?

To represent the people of the city and decide on important issues

Who led the Romans in the revolt against the Etruscan monarch in 509 BCE?

Lucius Junius Brutus

What was the purpose of having two consuls in the Roman Republic?

To prevent a ruler from having too much power

How long did the consuls in the Roman Republic serve?

For one year

What was the main reason the Roman Republic was a safe location?

Its geographical features, such as the Alps and surrounding seas

Who were the only people allowed to lead in the Roman Republic's government?

Only the wealthy class, known as the patricians

What was the main purpose of the Centuriate Assembly in the Roman Republic?

To elect magistrates who would exercise military power

What was one of the key differences between the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire?

The Roman Republic had a democratic government, while the Roman Empire was autocratic

What was the requirement that Rome gave to the conquered kingdoms?

To provide soldiers who would join the Roman military force

Study Notes

The Roman Republic

  • Existed from 509 BCE to 27 BCE
  • Replaced Etruscan kings who ruled Rome
  • Established by wealthy citizens who formed Assemblies to represent the people and decide on important issues

The Formation of the Roman Republic

  • Last Etruscan king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was deposed in 509 BCE
  • Lucius Junius Brutus led the Romans in the revolt against the Etruscan monarch
  • Romans replaced the Etruscan kings with two consuls, elected for one year, to prevent too much power in one ruler

Geography of the Roman Republic

  • Consisted of North Africa, Greece, modern-day France, and the Iberian Peninsula
  • Italian Peninsula provided natural barriers, including the Alps mountain range and seas, for defense

Government of the Roman Republic

  • Representative democratic government where people elected leaders to rule on their behalf
  • Only wealthy class, patricians, held the privilege to lead, excluding poor citizens, plebeians
  • Government system comprised of two Consuls, the Senate, several magistrates, and the Assembly of the Republic

Roman Republic Military

  • Consisted of wealthy Roman men who provided their own weapons
  • Military was critical to Rome's success, expanding Rome through conflicts with neighboring kingdoms
  • Conquered territories were allowed to keep their institutions, traditions, and cultures, and were required to provide soldiers to the Roman military force

Roman Republic vs. Roman Empire

  • Roman Republic turned into the Roman Empire in 27 BCE after Augustus became the first emperor
  • Roman Empire had a autocratic government, whereas the Roman Republic had a democratic government
  • Roman Empire practiced imperial cult polytheism, whereas the Roman Republic practiced polytheism

Explore the history and government of the Roman Republic, from its formation in 509 BCE to its end in 27 BCE. Learn about the Etruscan kings, the role of the Assemblies, and how the republic came to be. Test your knowledge of this ancient civilization!

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