202 DR 2 Organization of the Central Nervous System -

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30 Questions

Which layer of the meninges forms the outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord?

Dura mater

Which space below the arachnoid mater contains cerebrospinal fluid?

Subarachnoid space

What is the name of the space that extends from the end of the spinal cord to the level of S2?

Lumbar cistern

Which roots of the spinal cord contain sensory (afferent) nerve fibers?

Dorsal roots

Which arteries descend the length of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the spinal cord?

Spinal arteries

Where are the cell bodies of the primary sensory neurons located?

Dorsal root ganglia

Which dural fold separates the two cerebral hemispheres?

Falx cerebri

Which dural fold separates the cerebellum from the cerebral hemispheres?

Tentorium cerebelli

Which dural fold separates the cerebellar hemispheres?

Falx cerebelli

Which sinus sits along the superior border of the falx cerebri?

Superior sagittal sinus

Which sinus drains blood from the confluence of sinuses into the sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein?

Transverse sinus

Which lobe of the brain is primarily concerned with motor function and includes Broca's 'motor speech area'?

Frontal lobe

Which feature of the spinal cord is located on its ventral side?

Ventral root

What is the name of the space that lies between the dura and the tissues that line the vertebral canal?

Epidural space

Which component of the central nervous system is responsible for the coordination and control of voluntary movements?

Cerebellum

What is the name of the structure that connects the brain to the spinal cord?

Brainstem

Which layer of the meninges is the innermost layer and directly adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord?

Pia

What is the name of the space within the spinal meninges that contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

Lumbar cistern

Which part of the hindbrain is the largest and is responsible for controlling posture, coordinating limb movements, and controlling eye movements?

Posterior lobe

What are the two hemispheres of the cerebellum connected by in the midline?

Vermis

What separates the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum?

Anterior lobe

What are the three lobes of the cerebellum?

Anterior lobe, Posterior lobe, Flocculonodular lobe

What are the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles responsible for connecting?

Cerebellum to the brainstem

What is the arbor vitae of the cerebellum?

The inner white matter

Which structure connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

Pituitary stalk

Which structure is the main relay station in olfactory pathways?

Olfactory bulb

Which structure is composed of bundles of nerve fibers and is involved in voluntary motor control?

Pyramids

Which structure is involved in the control and coordination of fine movements and is closely associated with the cerebellum?

Inferior olivary nuclei

Which structure is involved in the regulation of eye movements and receives information from the optic tracts?

Superior colliculus

Which structure secretes melatonin and is involved in sleep cycles?

Pineal gland

Study Notes

Organization of the Central Nervous System

  • The prosection session focuses on the organization of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, meninges, venous sinuses, brain surfaces, brainstem, and cerebellum.
  • The spinal cord features include the anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus, ventral root, dorsal root and dorsal root ganglia, epidural space, cervical enlargement, conus medullaris, and lumbar cistern.
  • The spinal meninges consist of the dura, arachnoid, and pia. The epidural space contains connective tissue, fat, and blood vessels, and can be used for epidural injections.
  • The dura extends from the foramen magnum to S2 and becomes continuous with the epineurium of the spinal nerves. The arachnoid can be found below the dura, with the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The pia adheres to the surface of the spinal cord.
  • The lumbar cistern extends from the end of the spinal cord at L2 to S2 and contains the cauda equina.
  • The cervical and lumbosacral enlargements are formed at the C5-T1 and L1-S3 levels, respectively.
  • The dorsal roots contain sensory nerve fibers, while the ventral roots contain motor nerve fibers. They come together to form the spinal nerves.
  • The cauda equina is formed by the lumbar and sacral dorsal and ventral roots and can be followed to where they exit as spinal nerves.
  • The conus medullaris forms the caudal end of the spinal cord, with the pia continuing as the terminal filum.
  • The spinal cord receives blood supply from the anterior and posterior spinal arteries, as well as segmental spinal arteries.
  • The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of primary sensory neurons and are continuous with the dorsal roots and spinal nerves.
  • The meninges consist of the dura, arachnoid, and pia. The dura is a dense fibrous membrane that adheres to the internal surface of the skull. The arachnoid is a thin avascular membrane that covers the brain, and the pia is a thin vascular membrane that closely invests the brain.

Quiz: Organization of the Central Nervous System - Dural Folds Test your knowledge on the dural folds of the central nervous system with this quiz. Identify and understand the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli, and their role in separating different parts of the brain. Get ready to delve into the fascinating anatomy of the CNS!

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