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# Test your knowledge on Seismic Reflection Processing and Seismic Surveying and D...

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@InspirationalValley

### What is the purpose of seismic reflection processing?

To increase the signal-to-noise ratio

### What is the formula used to estimate dipping layers in seismic surveying?

Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx)

### What are the three stages involved in seismic surveying?

Pre-migration, migrated stack, interpretation

### What are Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)?

<p>Anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the AVO response dependent on?

<p>Velocities of P- and S-waves and on density</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the difference in AVO response when gas, oil, and water fill the pore space of some reservoirs?

<p>AVO response differs</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are the two parameters used to quantify the AVO response?

<p>Intercept (A) and slope (B)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the goal of mapping the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir?

<p>To detect pore-fill anomalies and map their lateral extent</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of stacking seismic traces?

<p>To increase the signal-to-noise ratio</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the formula used to estimate dipping layers?

<p>Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx)</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of migration in seismic surveying?

<p>To move reflections back to their point of origin</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)?

<p>Anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the AVO analysis technique used for in seismic surveying?

<p>To detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the AVO response dependent on?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are the DHI signatures that can be used to detect the presence of hydrocarbons?

<p>Amplitude anomaly, fluid contact reflection, and fit to structural contours</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is moveout in seismic surveying?

<p>The different values for travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides of the shotpoint</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Filtering data is a process to increase the amount of seismic noise in the data.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Seismic noise can be removed by applying frequency domain filters such as the high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Common depth/mid point (CMP) stacking is a method of reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The seismic trace is the convolution of the reflectivity function and the input (source) pulse, and deconvolution is a method that further adds noise to the seismic traces.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### To find the dip angle, the value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with different distances is needed.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Seismic surveying involves pre-migration, migrated stack, and interpretation of seismic data to distinguish major reflectors and geometries of seismic sequences.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### AVO response is dependent on the velocities of P- and S-waves and on density to define the pore space and fluids within the rock matrix.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Applying high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters can increase seismic noise.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Stacking seismic traces can improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### CMP stacking is a method of reducing the signal-to-noise ratio.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The fold of a CMP is determined by the number of geophones and array spacings the source is moved between shots.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Deconvolution is a method that removes noise from the seismic traces.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with the same distance can help find the dip angle.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### AVO analysis helps determine thickness, porosity, density, velocity, lithology, and fluid content of rocks by examining variations in reflection amplitude with time.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of filtering seismic data?

<p>To remove noise and improve the visual display of seismic sections.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are the four types of frequency domain filters used to remove seismic noise?

<p>High pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of stacking seismic traces?

<p>To reduce noise amplitude and improve the signal-to-noise ratio.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is CMP stacking?

<p>A method of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of signals from a number of input channels.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is deconvolution in seismic processing?

<p>A method that further removes noise of the seismic traces.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is migration in seismic processing?

<p>A process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What are Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)?

<p>Anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons, caused by the decrease in acoustic impedance of a porous rock as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the AVO response in seismic processing?

<p>A seismic technique that uses pre-stack seismic data to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir by examining variations in reflection amplitude with angle or offset.</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

Seismic Reflection Processing

• Filtering data is a process to cut off unlikely frequencies due to noise, and it is done through a suitable filter.

• Seismic data is usually contaminated by noise, which can be removed through filtering to improve the visual display of seismic sections.

• Seismic noise can be removed by applying frequency domain filters such as the high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.

• Stacking seismic traces can also reduce noise amplitude and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

• Common depth/mid point (CMP) stacking is a method of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of signals from a number of input channels.

• The fold of a CMP can be determined by the number of geophones and array spacings the source is moved between shots.

• The summation of signals from a number of similar input channels for the purpose of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio is known as stacking.

• The seismic trace is the convolution of the reflectivity function and the input (source) pulse, and deconvolution is a method that further removes noise of the seismic traces.

• The travel time curve is a hyperbola, and the different values for travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides of the shotpoint is known as moveout.

• To find the dip angle, the value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with the same distance is needed.

• Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

• Migration is necessary when beds dip steeply, and the wave returns from the reflector from a point not immediately beneath the surface location.Seismic Surveying and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)

• Dipping layers can be estimated using the formula Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx), where Δtd is dip moveout and V is velocity.

• Seismic surveying involves pre-migration, migrated stack, and interpretation of seismic data to distinguish major reflectors and geometries of seismic sequences.

• Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) are anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons, caused by the decrease in acoustic impedance of a porous rock as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock.

• Impedance depth trends show that oil sands are lower impedance than water sands and shales, and gas sands are lower impedance than oil sands.

• DHI signatures include amplitude anomaly, fluid contact reflection, and fit to structural contours.

• Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) is a seismic technique that uses pre-stack seismic data to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir.

• AVO analysis helps determine thickness, porosity, density, velocity, lithology, and fluid content of rocks, by examining variations in reflection amplitude with angle or offset.

• AVO response is dependent on the velocities of P- and S-waves and on density to define the pore space and fluids within the rock matrix.

• AVO response differs when gas, oil, and water fill the pore space of some reservoirs.

• The AVO response can be quantified in terms of two parameters: intercept (A) and slope (B).

• Maps or crossplots of AVO responses can be used to detect pore-fill anomalies, i.e. hydrocarbons, and map their lateral extent.

• The goal of the exercise is to map the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir using changes in amplitude that indicate fluid (gas sand, water sand).

Seismic Reflection Processing

• Filtering data is a process to cut off unlikely frequencies due to noise, and it is done through a suitable filter.

• Seismic data is usually contaminated by noise, which can be removed through filtering to improve the visual display of seismic sections.

• Seismic noise can be removed by applying frequency domain filters such as the high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.

• Stacking seismic traces can also reduce noise amplitude and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

• Common depth/mid point (CMP) stacking is a method of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of signals from a number of input channels.

• The fold of a CMP can be determined by the number of geophones and array spacings the source is moved between shots.

• The summation of signals from a number of similar input channels for the purpose of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio is known as stacking.

• The seismic trace is the convolution of the reflectivity function and the input (source) pulse, and deconvolution is a method that further removes noise of the seismic traces.

• The travel time curve is a hyperbola, and the different values for travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides of the shotpoint is known as moveout.

• To find the dip angle, the value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with the same distance is needed.

• Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

• Migration is necessary when beds dip steeply, and the wave returns from the reflector from a point not immediately beneath the surface location.Seismic Surveying and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)

• Dipping layers can be estimated using the formula Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx), where Δtd is dip moveout and V is velocity.

• Seismic surveying involves pre-migration, migrated stack, and interpretation of seismic data to distinguish major reflectors and geometries of seismic sequences.

• Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) are anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons, caused by the decrease in acoustic impedance of a porous rock as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock.

• Impedance depth trends show that oil sands are lower impedance than water sands and shales, and gas sands are lower impedance than oil sands.

• DHI signatures include amplitude anomaly, fluid contact reflection, and fit to structural contours.

• Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) is a seismic technique that uses pre-stack seismic data to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir.

• AVO analysis helps determine thickness, porosity, density, velocity, lithology, and fluid content of rocks, by examining variations in reflection amplitude with angle or offset.

• AVO response is dependent on the velocities of P- and S-waves and on density to define the pore space and fluids within the rock matrix.

• AVO response differs when gas, oil, and water fill the pore space of some reservoirs.

• The AVO response can be quantified in terms of two parameters: intercept (A) and slope (B).

• Maps or crossplots of AVO responses can be used to detect pore-fill anomalies, i.e. hydrocarbons, and map their lateral extent.

• The goal of the exercise is to map the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir using changes in amplitude that indicate fluid (gas sand, water sand).

Seismic Reflection Processing

• Filtering data is a process to cut off unlikely frequencies due to noise, and it is done through a suitable filter.

• Seismic data is usually contaminated by noise, which can be removed through filtering to improve the visual display of seismic sections.

• Seismic noise can be removed by applying frequency domain filters such as the high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.

• Stacking seismic traces can also reduce noise amplitude and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

• Common depth/mid point (CMP) stacking is a method of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of signals from a number of input channels.

• The fold of a CMP can be determined by the number of geophones and array spacings the source is moved between shots.

• The summation of signals from a number of similar input channels for the purpose of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio is known as stacking.

• The seismic trace is the convolution of the reflectivity function and the input (source) pulse, and deconvolution is a method that further removes noise of the seismic traces.

• The travel time curve is a hyperbola, and the different values for travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides of the shotpoint is known as moveout.

• To find the dip angle, the value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with the same distance is needed.

• Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

• Migration is necessary when beds dip steeply, and the wave returns from the reflector from a point not immediately beneath the surface location.Seismic Surveying and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)

• Dipping layers can be estimated using the formula Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx), where Δtd is dip moveout and V is velocity.

• Seismic surveying involves pre-migration, migrated stack, and interpretation of seismic data to distinguish major reflectors and geometries of seismic sequences.

• Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) are anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons, caused by the decrease in acoustic impedance of a porous rock as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock.

• Impedance depth trends show that oil sands are lower impedance than water sands and shales, and gas sands are lower impedance than oil sands.

• DHI signatures include amplitude anomaly, fluid contact reflection, and fit to structural contours.

• Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) is a seismic technique that uses pre-stack seismic data to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir.

• AVO analysis helps determine thickness, porosity, density, velocity, lithology, and fluid content of rocks, by examining variations in reflection amplitude with angle or offset.

• AVO response is dependent on the velocities of P- and S-waves and on density to define the pore space and fluids within the rock matrix.

• AVO response differs when gas, oil, and water fill the pore space of some reservoirs.

• The AVO response can be quantified in terms of two parameters: intercept (A) and slope (B).

• Maps or crossplots of AVO responses can be used to detect pore-fill anomalies, i.e. hydrocarbons, and map their lateral extent.

• The goal of the exercise is to map the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir using changes in amplitude that indicate fluid (gas sand, water sand).

Seismic Reflection Processing

• Filtering data is a process to cut off unlikely frequencies due to noise, and it is done through a suitable filter.

• Seismic data is usually contaminated by noise, which can be removed through filtering to improve the visual display of seismic sections.

• Seismic noise can be removed by applying frequency domain filters such as the high pass, low pass, band pass, and notch filters.

• Stacking seismic traces can also reduce noise amplitude and improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

• Common depth/mid point (CMP) stacking is a method of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by summation of signals from a number of input channels.

• The fold of a CMP can be determined by the number of geophones and array spacings the source is moved between shots.

• The summation of signals from a number of similar input channels for the purpose of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio is known as stacking.

• The seismic trace is the convolution of the reflectivity function and the input (source) pulse, and deconvolution is a method that further removes noise of the seismic traces.

• The travel time curve is a hyperbola, and the different values for travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides of the shotpoint is known as moveout.

• To find the dip angle, the value of travel time for two geophones positioned on both sides with the same distance is needed.

• Migration is a process of trying to move reflections back to their point of origin, and it is designed to restore seismic reflectors to their proper x—y position.

• Migration is necessary when beds dip steeply, and the wave returns from the reflector from a point not immediately beneath the surface location.Seismic Surveying and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI)

• Dipping layers can be estimated using the formula Δtd / Δx = sinθ ~ V(Δtd / Δx), where Δtd is dip moveout and V is velocity.

• Seismic surveying involves pre-migration, migrated stack, and interpretation of seismic data to distinguish major reflectors and geometries of seismic sequences.

• Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) are anomalous seismic responses related to the presence of hydrocarbons, caused by the decrease in acoustic impedance of a porous rock as hydrocarbon replaces brine in pore spaces of the rock.

• Impedance depth trends show that oil sands are lower impedance than water sands and shales, and gas sands are lower impedance than oil sands.

• DHI signatures include amplitude anomaly, fluid contact reflection, and fit to structural contours.

• Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) is a seismic technique that uses pre-stack seismic data to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in the reservoir.

• AVO analysis helps determine thickness, porosity, density, velocity, lithology, and fluid content of rocks, by examining variations in reflection amplitude with angle or offset.

• AVO response is dependent on the velocities of P- and S-waves and on density to define the pore space and fluids within the rock matrix.

• AVO response differs when gas, oil, and water fill the pore space of some reservoirs.

• The AVO response can be quantified in terms of two parameters: intercept (A) and slope (B).

• Maps or crossplots of AVO responses can be used to detect pore-fill anomalies, i.e. hydrocarbons, and map their lateral extent.

• The goal of the exercise is to map the extent of the A1 gas-filled reservoir using changes in amplitude that indicate fluid (gas sand, water sand).

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## Description

Test your knowledge on Seismic Reflection Processing and Seismic Surveying and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI) with this informative quiz! Learn about filtering, stacking, deconvolution, migration, and more, as well as how to estimate dipping layers and detect the presence of hydrocarbons in reservoirs. This quiz is perfect for anyone interested in geophysics, petroleum exploration, or seismic data interpretation.

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