Test Your Knowledge of the Hundred Years' War

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What was the main cause of the Hundred Years' War?

Disputed claims to the French throne

Which phase of the Hundred Years' War saw the English regain control over large parts of France?

The first phase (1337-1360)

Which battle was a disaster for the French and largely credited to the longbowmen?

The Battle of Crécy

Who provided extensive intelligence on the French court and urged Edward III to start a war to reclaim France?

Robert III of Artois

Who played a key role in the French victory during the Hundred Years' War?

Joan of Arc

What was the outcome of the Battle of Castillon in 1453?

The English were decisively defeated, marking the end of the Hundred Years' War

What was the impact of the Hundred Years' War on feudalism?

The war accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralized state

What was the significance of the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360?

Edward III renounced his claim to the crown of France and abandoned Normandy, Touraine, Anjou, and Maine

What was the impact of the Hundred Years' War on military technology and tactics?

The war had a significant impact on the development of military technology and tactics

Study Notes

The Hundred Years' War was a series of armed conflicts between England and France from 1337 to 1453, originating from disputed claims to the French throne between the English House of Plantagenet and the French House of Valois, and fuelled by emerging nationalism on both sides. The war was significant, lasting for 116 years and involving five generations of kings from two rival dynasties. Innovations in military technology and tactics, including professional standing armies and artillery, that permanently changed warfare in Europe. The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the Western Roman Empire and helped change their role in warfare. The war is commonly divided into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, and the Lancastrian War. The English monarchs were historically vassals to the kings of France, and French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power. By 1337, only Gascony was English. When Charles IV of France died without any sons or brothers, Edward III of England claimed the throne of France for his mother, but the French nobility rejected this, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Edward ultimately renewed his claim for the French throne, this time by force of arms. The English saw resounding successes in the early years of the war, but by 1378, the French had reconquered most of the lands ceded to King Edward in the Treaty of Brétigny. The weakening of royal authority, combined with the devastation caused by the Black Death of 1347–1351 and the major economic crisis that followed, led to a period of civil unrest in both countries. The newly crowned Henry V of England seized the opportunity presented by the mental illness of Charles VI of France and the French civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians to revive the conflict. England permanently lost most of its continental possessions, with only the Pale of Calais remaining under its control on the continent, until it too was lost in the Siege of Calais in 1558. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, and the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were used by the parties to advance their agendas. The war inspired French and English nationalism. The economic consequences of the Hundred Years' War not only produced a decline in trade but also led to a high collection of taxes from both countries and it played a major role in civil disorder.The Hundred Years' War: A Brief History

  • Gascony was incorporated into Aquitaine and together they formed the province of Guyenne and Gascony, which was held in vassalage to the French Crown.

  • At the beginning of Edward III's reign, the only part of Aquitaine that remained in English hands was the Duchy of Gascony.

  • Gascony was a major point of friction between England and France, with the French pressuring the English administration even after Edward III paid homage to Philip VI.

  • Robert III of Artois, an influential adviser to Edward III, urged him to start a war to reclaim France and provided extensive intelligence on the French court.

  • France was an ally of Scotland, and in 1336, a large naval fleet was assembled off Normandy, threatening England.

  • The Battle of Sluys in 1340 saw the English fleet deceive the French and almost completely destroy them, giving England dominance in the English Channel.

  • The War of the Breton Succession began in 1341, with Edward backing John of Montfort and Philip backing Charles of Blois.

  • The Battle of Crécy in 1346 was a disaster for the French, largely credited to the longbowmen, and King John II was captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356.

  • The Treaty of Brétigny in 1360 saw Edward III renounce his claim to the crown of France and abandon Normandy, Touraine, Anjou, and Maine in return for increased lands in Aquitaine and a reduction in King John's ransom.

  • Charles V succeeded John II as king of France in 1364, and under his reign, French ascendancy began, with the support of Bertrand du Guesclin in the civil war of succession in Castile.The Hundred Years' War: A Summary

  • The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts fought between England and France from 1337 to 1453.

  • The war started due to disputes over the succession of the French throne and English territorial claims in France.

  • The first phase of the war (1337-1360) was marked by English victories and the establishment of English control over large parts of France.

  • The second phase (1360-1389) saw the French regain control of their territory and the English struggle with internal turmoil.

  • The third phase (1415-1429) saw English success under Henry V and the signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which declared Henry's heirs would inherit the French throne.

  • The war ended in 1453 with the French reclaiming their territory and driving the English out of France.

  • The war was marked by significant battles like the Battle of Crécy, Battle of Poitiers, and Battle of Agincourt.

  • The war had a significant impact on both England and France, with the former suffering internal turmoil and the latter experiencing economic and political instability.

  • The war also saw the rise of significant figures like Joan of Arc, who played a key role in the French victory.

  • The war was fought through proxy wars, piracy, and raids.

  • The war was also marked by political and dynastic struggles, like the conflict between the Armagnacs and Burgundians in France and the rise of Henry IV in England.

  • The war had a significant impact on the development of military technology and tactics.

  • The war was a major factor in the decline of feudalism and the rise of centralized monarchies in England and France.The Hundred Years' War Summary

  • Henry V of England died in 1422, leaving his nine-month-old son, Henry VI, as his successor.

  • Henry V had given the Duke of Bedford responsibility for English France on his deathbed.

  • The English won the Battle of Verneuil in 1424, which virtually destroyed the Dauphin's field army and eliminated the Scots as a significant military force.

  • Joan of Arc appeared at the siege of Orléans, sparking a revival of French spirit, and the tide began to turn against the English.

  • The French took several English strongholds on the Loire, and the French cavalry broke through a unit of English longbowmen at the Battle of Patay.

  • Henry VI was crowned king of England and France, while Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians and burned at the stake in 1431.

  • The Duke of Bedford wanted to defend Normandy, the Duke of Gloucester was committed to just Calais, and Cardinal Beaufort was inclined to peace, but negotiations stalled.

  • The Duke of Burgundy deserted to Charles VII, signing the Treaty of Arras that returned Paris to the King of France, which was a major blow to English sovereignty in France.

  • The French had retaken Rouen by 1449, and in 1450, they caught an English army attempting to relieve Caen and defeated it at the Battle of Formigny.

  • The English were decisively defeated at the Battle of Castillon on 17 July 1453, which marked the end of the Hundred Years' War.

  • England was left with only Calais on the continent, and the war destroyed the English dream of a joint monarchy.

  • The Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a centralized state.

  • The war was a time of rapid military evolution, which saw the feudal system slowly disintegrate as well as the concept of chivalry.

How much do you know about the Hundred Years' War? Test your knowledge of this epic conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453, which saw significant battles like the Battle of Crécy and the Battle of Agincourt, as well as the rise of figures like Joan of Arc. Discover the impact of the war on both countries, including the development of military technology and the decline of feudalism. Take this quiz and see how much you know about this historic conflict.

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