Formative Ethics assessment (Practice for Summative Assessment)

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Which field of study has started to develop a conceptual framework for understanding why people do not act ethically, particularly in business environments?

Behavioural ethics

Match the following statements about informed consent with their correct descriptions:

Therapists should ensure that they have sought and received the consent of the client in an appropriate manner prior to undertaking any assessment, intervention or research activities. = Basic principle of informed consent A client’s desire for help, and the immediate impact of the psychologist’s supportive listening, may affect the client’s ability to make informed choices about the help they wish to receive. = Therapist's awareness of client's desires and biases In order to ensure that the client has all the information necessary to make an informed decision, they must be provided with relevant information in a format that is designed to meet their specific needs. = Information provision for informed decision-making All children and young people have a right to express their views freely and be involved in any decision-making that affects their lives. = Informed consent with children and young people

Match the following actions with their correct descriptions in the context of obtaining informed consent with children and young people:

Provide an accessible explanation to the child or young person about their work = Therapist's responsibility to explain their work Offer a clear reason for their possible involvement = Therapist's responsibility to provide a reason for involvement Discuss and agree how information is recorded and possibly shared with others = Discussion on information sharing and recording Ensure that the child or young person has understood the therapist’s role = Therapist's responsibility to ensure understanding of their role

Match the following elements with their correct descriptions in the context of informed consent:

People and organisations working together to prevent and stop both the risks and experience of abuse or neglect = Collaboration to promote wellbeing and prevent abuse The concept of informed consent relates to the client’s right to choose whether to receive psychological services = Basic concept of informed consent The therapist's own desires to help a client may bias their presentation of information = Therapist's bias in presenting information The complexities of obtaining informed consent to treatment due to the perceived power, status and authority of the professional psychologist = Challenges in obtaining informed consent

What is the key principle of safeguarding children mentioned in the text?

Safeguarding is everyone's responsibility

In which circumstances should therapists be alert for early intervention support for a child?

All of the above

What is considered as abuse in shame-based abuse cases?

Physical assault or murder

Who is considered an adult at risk of harm according to the Care Act 2014?

A person aged 18 or over with need for care or support

Psychologists should consider responsibility as one of their values

True

Acting with integrity includes being honest, truthful, accurate and consistent

True

Psychologists' professional practice is impacted by legislation and regulation

True

Psychologists must accept appropriate ______ for what is within their power, control or management.

responsibility

Psychologists value their responsibilities to persons and peoples, to the general public, and to the profession and science of Psychology, including the avoidance of ______ and the prevention of misuse or abuse of their contribution to society.

harm

Which of the following types of information can service users access from their Electronic Health Records (EHRs)?

Clinical notes

Who is responsible for any consequences regarding requests for sharing their own health record with any third-party practitioners?

The service user

When is Caldicott Approval Application necessary in research involving patient identifiable information?

For all research involving participants

Therapists should make, keep and disclose information in records only in accordance with national policy and legislation, and the policies and procedures of the organisation(s) they are employed by or working in collaboration with. Irrespective of format, records made, kept or accessed by therapists should be: ______; appropriately detailed; in clear language/format; accurate & up to date; relevant to professional work and to the purpose for which they were collected.

systematic

Sharing records with service users supports a collaborative approach and enables full and effective involvement. It is the duty of health and social care organisations to store direct care information securely and to share it according to clear guidance as expressed in the revised Caldicott Guidelines relating to information governance.

good practice

Caldicott Approval Application to the Caldicott Guardian is necessary whenever patient identifiable information is to be collected outside the protocols of normal clinical practice. This applies to almost all ______ involving participants, or participant data, that has been collected from an NHS Healthcare setting. Caldicott approvals also apply to most forms of service evaluation or audit data. There may be some variations between health boards regarding what level of service requires Caldicott approval. If you are in any doubt, check with academic supervisor, clinical supervisor and/or the relevant NHS R&D office for that board. Research projects that are not service evaluation or audit will be required to go through formal IRAS REC procedures.

research

True or false: Therapists should keep and disclose information in records only in accordance with national policy and legislation?

True

True or false: Clients have a legal right to access records concerning them?

True

True or false: The use of sealed envelopes is considered good practice for record keeping?

False

True or false: In education settings, all records are retained until the child is 2 years old?

False

True or false: Therapists have a duty to inform involved parties of their confidentiality standards and practice?

True

True or false: If confidentiality is broken without consent, the client should always be told what has been said and to whom?

False

True or false: Service users have the legal right to access their Electronic Health Records (EHRs).

True

True or false: Caldicott Approval Application is necessary whenever patient identifiable information is to be collected outside the protocols of normal clinical practice.

True

True or false: Research projects that are not service evaluation or audit will be required to go through formal IRAS REC procedures.

True

True or false: Therapists should make, keep and disclose information in records only in accordance with national policy and legislation.

True

Which of the following values should psychologists consider in their professional practice?

All of the above

What does it mean to act with integrity as a psychologist?

All of the above

Where can psychologists find resources and advice on professional ethics?

On the Society's website

What is the purpose of the Code of Ethics and Conduct?

To set parameters for professional judgments

Which organization is the statutory regulator for Practitioner Psychologists?

The Health & Care Professions Council

What is the recommended action for psychologists regarding professional indemnity insurance?

Consider taking out professional indemnity insurance

What should psychologists consider in their interactions with all persons and peoples?

Honesty, probity, accuracy, clarity, and fairness

What is the role of the British Psychological Society in addressing concerns about ethical behavior?

Consider concerns about ethical behavior and conduct

What is the key principle of safeguarding children mentioned in the text?

Early intervention support

What should psychologists consider in their professional practice?

All of the above

What are some values that psychologists should consider in their professional practice?

Professional accountability; Responsible use of their knowledge and skills; Respect for the welfare of humans, non-humans and the living world; Potentially competing duties.

What does it mean to act with integrity as a psychologist?

Acting with integrity includes being honest, truthful, accurate and consistent in one’s actions, words, decisions, methods and outcomes. It requires setting self-interest to one side and being objective and open to challenge in one’s behaviour in a professional context.

Where can psychologists find resources and advice on professional ethics?

Psychologists can find resources and advice on professional ethics on the Society’s website (www.bps.org.uk), which provides a range of resources, including Frequently Asked Questions.

Match the following statements with their correct descriptions:

You must limit your work or stop practising if your performance or judgement is affected by your health = Psychologist's duty to take action if their physical or mental health could be harming their fitness to practice You must behave with honesty and integrity and make sure that your behaviour does not damage the public’s confidence in you or your practice = Psychologist's responsibility to act with honesty and integrity and ensure their behavior does not damage public confidence Duty of Candour is a crucial element of providing professional services and care = Professional responsibility of psychologists to be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users when something goes wrong Caldicott Approval Application is necessary whenever patient identifiable information is to be collected outside the protocols of normal clinical practice = Procedure to be followed when collecting patient identifiable information outside the protocols of normal clinical practice

Match the following terms with their correct definitions:

Duty of Candour = Professional responsibility to be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users when something goes wrong Caldicott Approval Application = Procedure to be followed when collecting patient identifiable information outside the protocols of normal clinical practice Fitness to practice = Condition where a psychologist's performance or judgement is not affected by their health Ethics and Conduct = Guidelines that psychologists should follow in their professional practice, including their interactions with clients, patients, or service users

Match the following actions with their correct descriptions in the context of psychologists' professional practice:

Taking action if your physical or mental health could be harming your fitness to practice = Psychologist's duty to address any potential harm to their fitness to practice caused by their health Behaving with honesty and integrity = Psychologist's responsibility to act with honesty and integrity in their professional practice Being open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users when something goes wrong = Professional 'Duty of Candour' that psychologists should follow Limiting your work or stopping practising = Action that should be taken if a psychologist's performance or judgement is affected by their health

Match the following principles with their correct descriptions in the context of psychologists' professional practice:

Duty of Candour = Principle that requires psychologists to be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users when something goes wrong Fitness to practice = Principle that states a psychologist must limit their work or stop practising if their performance or judgement is affected by their health Honesty and Integrity = Principle that requires psychologists to behave with honesty and integrity in their professional practice Caldicott Approval Application = Principle that requires psychologists to follow a specific procedure when collecting patient identifiable information outside the protocols of normal clinical practice

Match the following terms with their correct definitions in the context of psychologists' professional practice:

Duty of Candour = Professional responsibility to be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users when something goes wrong Fitness to practice = Condition where a psychologist's performance or judgement is not affected by their health Honesty and Integrity = Behaviour that psychologists must exhibit in their professional practice Caldicott Approval Application = Procedure to be followed when collecting patient identifiable information outside the protocols of normal clinical practice

  1. You must limit your work or stop practising if your performance or judgement is affected by your ______.

health

You should get advice from a consultant in occupational health or another suitably qualified medical practitioner and act on it. This advice should consider whether, and in what ways, you should change your practice, including stopping practising if this is ______.

necessary

  1. You must behave with honesty and integrity and make sure that your behaviour does not damage the public’s confidence in you or your ______.

practice

In addition, you have a professional responsibility to be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients or service users when something ______ wrong.

goes

14.1 Duty of Candour is a crucial element of providing professional services and ______.

care

True or false: Psychologists have a duty to limit or stop practicing if their performance or judgment is affected by their health?

True

True or false: Psychologists have a professional responsibility to be open, honest, and transparent with clients when something goes wrong?

True

True or false: Duty of Candour is a crucial element of providing professional services and care?

True

True or false: Psychologists must behave with honesty and integrity and ensure that their behavior does not damage the public's confidence in them?

True

True or false: Psychologists have a duty to take action if their physical or mental health could be harming their fitness to practice?

True

Which of the following is a professional responsibility of psychologists when it comes to their own health?

They must limit their work or stop practicing if their performance or judgment is affected by their health.

What is the professional responsibility of psychologists when something goes wrong in their practice?

They must be open, honest, and transparent with clients, patients, or service users.

What is the recommended action for psychologists regarding their practice if their health is affecting their performance or judgment?

They should seek advice from a consultant in occupational health or another qualified medical practitioner and act on it, including limiting their work or stopping practicing if necessary.

Which of the following actions must you inform the authorities about as soon as possible?

All of the above

What should you do with the records of the people you provide care for?

All of the above

What does it mean for a health and care professional to be 'fit to practise'?

All of the above

Who can raise concerns about a registrant's fitness to practise?

All of the above

Where can you find more information about the fitness to practise process?

All of the above

Failure to cooperate with any investigation into your ______ or competence can result in disciplinary action

conduct

You must keep full, clear, and accurate ______ for everyone you care for, treat, or provide other services to

records

You must keep records secure by protecting them from loss, damage or inappropriate ______

access

When we say someone is 'fit to ______', we mean that they have the skills, knowledge, character and health they need to practise their profession safely and effectively

practise

Making it clear that you are sorry about what has happened. The HCPC does not regard an apology, of itself, as an admission of liability or ______

wrongdoing

True or false: You must inform the HCPC if you accept a caution from the police or have been charged with a criminal offence?

True

True or false: You must keep accurate records for everyone you care for, treat, or provide other services to?

True

True or false: You must complete all records promptly and as soon as possible after providing care, treatment or other services?

True

True or false: You must keep records secure by protecting them from loss, damage or inappropriate access?

True

True or false: Fitness to practise means that a registrant has the skills, knowledge, character, and health to practice their profession safely and effectively?

True

Which of the following actions must you inform the authorities about as soon as possible?

Accepting a caution from the police

What is the key principle of safeguarding children mentioned in the text?

Cooperating with investigations

True or false: In education settings, all records are retained until the child is 2 years old?

False

Please see below a proposed research study. Please write a paragraph identifying the 5 most prominent ethical issues you see in relation to this proposed study.

Briefly describe the main objectives of your study

  1. To identify if different indexical values are associated with the hashtag in its spoken and writtenforms
  2. If so, highlight further areas of interest to help explain this What methods are you using for your study Group 1; audio recording of 1 participants, who will all read out sentences given to them by the researcher, which will then be played to other participants Group 2; 3 Focus groups (6-8 people), who will be asked to discuss the hashtag in written,audio, or both formats, dependent on group Who are your participants? What criteria will be used in deciding on the inclusion and exclusion of participants in the study Group 1; Participant will be a native English speaker with an Edinburgh accent, in order to remain as neutral as possible Group 2; Participants will be recruited through the volunteer panel, social media recruitment and by asking people I know (naive to the aims of the study) to participate. All who sign up will be eligible to participate, with the constraint that they must have normal hearing. How will you recruit your participants? How many will you aim to recruit I intend to recruit through the Volunteer panel, and through social media/by asking people I know (naive to the aims of the study) to participate Group 1; 1 person Group 2; 3 focus groups of 6-8 Does the study involve a 'gatekeeper' If you have a gatekeeper, please describe. What will your participants be asked to do for your study, and where will you see them/test them Group 1; will be required to speak aloud sentences which will be recorded, and played anonymously to the focus groups. They will be seen in a place of mutual convenience (study room/office etc). Group 2; focus groups will be required to discuss stimuli (either audio recordings or spoken texts), and discuss as a group what they think of the hashtags they encounter. They will be tested in a room in a University of Edinburgh Building, equipped with a device suitable to play an audio recording. This will be recorded in order to be transcribed.What (potentially) identifiable information are you gathering Audio recordings of group 1 and 2 Names and emails of participant group 2, in order for them to be able to withdraw their data, or for me to contact if there is a requirement for follow-up (which will not be shared with anyone other than myself and my supervisor) If you have identified risks which are possible or probable and, if manifest, either significant or severe, please explain in more detail, and identify measures you will take to reduce or eliminate these risks Participants in Group 1 might be identified by their voice by listeners in Groups 2 and 3. However, since there is nothing that the speakers are saying that is compromising, or even their own words, there is extremely little risk. Prior to the end of their participation, the listeners in Groups 2 and 3 will be told that the speakers in Group 1 were instructed in what to say, and the researcher will ensure that they know this fact. In addition, all the actual content of what is said will be as neutral as possible. 2.1D.6e How will the identifiable data (including consent forms) be stored during the data collection period? What will happen to the data after the data collection period has finished? How will you maintain secure storage of this data? What data formats will you use to ensure long-term usability The identifiable data will be scanned onto a computer and uploaded onto the Universities secure cloud storage during the data collection period. It will be stored there, and not on a computer. Paper copies will be kept for the duration of the study in a locked drawer, and given to the supervisor after the study is finished. After the data collection period has finished, all cloud data will be handed over to the supervisor. 2.1D.6f How will the identifiable data be used? Who will have access to them? How will you share them? How will participants be informed about these issues It will be played to other participants, to form the basis of the questions they are asked. Only the two researchers will have access to them. The data will be shared over the University's secure cloud storage, and shown to other participants on a laptop/computer in a University building.

  1. Biased Selection
  2. Deception
  3. identification of participants 4, storage of data 5 no time limit on holding data

You are sitting on a Professional Practice Panel, you are asked to consider the following allegations and identify what action should be taken: strike off? suspension? remedial training? no action: please state your reasons

During the course of your employment as a High Intensity Psychological Therapist with the Guernsey Health and Social Services Department and whilst registered as a Practitioner Psychologist between 24 May 2012 and 13 September 2012, you:

  1. Held therapy sessions with service user A, and on one or more occasions during those sessions, you:

a) kissed her on the lips; b) kissed her on the cheek; c) hugged her during sessions; d) hugged her at the end of sessions; e) asked her to go to the cinema with you, and (i) [not proved] (ii) [not proved] f) asked her to meet you in the car park; g) asked her to telephone you during a session so that you could save her personal mobile telephone number on your own mobile telephone; h) asked her to send you text messages twice a day, including one to say how she felt about you; i) told her that you had a 'special connection’, or words to that effect, but that she must not disclose this relationship to anyone else; j) touched the collar of her dress and in doing so touched her chest; k) stroked her leg from her ankle to just above her knee; l) told her she was in denial about her feelings for you; and m) made her feel uncomfortable during sessions.

  1. Held therapy sessions with service user C and on one or more occasions during those sessions, you:

a) offered to hug her; b) told her she was attractive; c) [not proved] d) [not proved] 3. Your actions in paragraphs 1 - 2 were sexually motivated. 4. The matters described in paragraphs 1 and/or 2 and 3 constitute misconduct. 5. By reason of that misconduct your fitness to practise is impaired.

Struck off This is a serious case in which fundamental standards have been breached, involving abuse of trust and confidence with 2 vulnerable service users and the Registrant’s behaviour was sexually motivated. There is an ongoing risk from which the public must be protected, there is a lack of confidence in the Registrant and a clear message needs to be sent out to the profession and public.

The lapses were certainly not of a minor nature, and were repeated and persisted over a 2 month period. There is a high risk of recurrence as the Registrant has shown limited insight, and has failed to show any remedial action”.

Study Notes

The British Psychological Society Code of Ethics and Conduct

  • Based on four ethical Principles: Respect, Competence, Responsibility, and Integrity
  • These principles constitute the main domains of responsibility, within which ethical issues are considered

Respect

  • Respect for the dignity of persons and peoples is a fundamental and universal ethical principle
  • Recognizes the inherent worth of all human beings, regardless of perceived or real differences
  • Statement of values: value the dignity and worth of all persons, with sensitivity to the dynamics of perceived authority or influence
  • Considerations:
    • Privacy and confidentiality
    • Respect for communities and shared values
    • Impacts on the broader environment
    • Issues of power and consent
    • Self-determination and compassion

Competence

  • Refers to the ability to provide professional services to a requisite standard
  • Statement of values: value the continuing development and maintenance of high standards of competence
  • Considerations:
    • Possession of appropriate skills and care
    • Limits of competence and need for referral
    • Advances in the evidence base
    • Maintenance of technical and practical skills
    • Caution in making knowledge claims

Responsibility

  • Members must accept appropriate responsibility for what is within their power, control, or management
  • Statement of values: value their responsibilities to persons, the general public, and the profession and science of Psychology
  • Considerations:
    • Avoidance of harm and prevention of misuse or abuse
    • Professional ethics and decision-making
    • Duty towards others and maintenance of public trust

Integrity

  • Acting with integrity includes being honest, truthful, accurate, and consistent in one's actions and decisions
  • Statement of values: value honesty, probity, accuracy, clarity, and fairness in all interactions
  • Considerations:
    • Honest and truthful communication
    • Avoidance of deception and misrepresentation
    • Fairness and transparency in all professional endeavors

Ethical Thinking and Decision-Making

  • The Four Component Model of ethical thinking:
    1. Ethical sensitivity: interpreting the situation and identifying ethical issues
    2. Ethical reasoning: formulating the morally ideal course of action
    3. Ethical motivation: deciding what to do
    4. Ethical implementation: executing the intended action
  • Cognitive biases that can influence ethical decision-making:
    • Salience
    • Confirmation bias
    • Loss aversion
    • Beliefs about disclosure
    • Dissonance reduction

Professional Obligations

  • Psychologists' professional practice is impacted by legislation and regulation

  • Examples of legislation and regulation:

    • Equality Act 2010
    • Data Protection Act 1998
    • Freedom of Information Act 2000
  • Importance of professional indemnity insurance and membership in professional organizations### Freedom of Information

  • The Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 covers information held by Scottish public authorities.

  • This legislation permits information to be withheld from disclosure in certain circumstances, such as:

    • Information provided in confidence.
    • Related to law enforcement.
    • Related to personal matters.

Mental Capacity

  • Mental Capacity Act 2005 (England and Wales) and Adults with Incapacity Act 2000 (Scotland) and Mental Capacity Act 2016 (Northern Ireland) provide a framework for capacity and consent.
  • 5 principles of mental capacity:
    • Assume a person has capacity unless established otherwise.
    • Take all practicable steps to help a person make a decision.
    • A person is not unable to make a decision solely because of an unwise decision.
    • Act in the best interests of the person who lacks capacity.
    • Consider less restrictive options when making decisions on behalf of a person.

Mental Health Act

  • Mental Health Act 1983 (amended 2007) allows for compulsory action to ensure people with mental disorders receive care and treatment.
  • Criteria must be met before compulsory measures can be taken, with protections and safeguards for patients.
  • 5 principles:
    • Least restrictive option.
    • Maximising independence.
    • Empowerment and involvement.
    • Respect and dignity.
    • Purpose and effectiveness.

Safeguarding

  • Safeguarding means protecting people's health, wellbeing, and human rights, and enabling them to live free from harm, abuse, and neglect.
  • Abuse takes many forms, including:
    • Physical abuse.
    • Sexual violence and abuse.
    • Psychological/emotional abuse.
    • Financial and institutional abuse.
    • Neglect.

Safeguarding Children

  • Working Together to Safeguard Children (guide) promotes inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.
  • Key principles:
    • Safeguarding is everyone's responsibility.
    • Child-centred approach.
  • Therapists should be alert for early intervention and support for children who:
    • Have a disability.
    • Have additional needs.
    • Are a young carer.
    • Show signs of engaging in anti-social or criminal behaviour.
    • Have returned home from care.
    • Show early signs of abuse or neglect.

Safeguarding Adults

  • The Care Act 2014 (England) introduced new legislation regarding the safeguarding of vulnerable adults.
  • An adult at risk of harm is a person aged 18 or over with a need for care or support, who is experiencing or at risk of abuse or neglect.
  • Safeguarding adults means protecting the rights of adults to live in safety, free from abuse and neglect.

British Psychological Society (BPS) Code of Conduct

  • The BPS Code of Conduct provides a framework for guiding decision-making for psychologists.
  • The Code is based on four ethical principles:
    • Respect.
    • Competence.
    • Responsibility.
    • Integrity.
  • Ethical reasoning is subject to various competing biases, and maintaining awareness of these biases is important.
  • The Code serves as a guide for thinking about the decisions individuals need to make.

Legal and Professional Obligations

  • Psychologists must be aware of the legislation and guidelines that govern their particular area of practice.
  • Important examples to note include:
    • Professional competence.
    • Professional indemnity insurance.
    • Equality Act 2010.
    • Data Protection Act 1998.
    • Freedom of Information Act 2000.### Code of Ethics and Conduct
  • The Code provides a basis for considering ethical questions, with the Principles being considered in the decision-making process, along with the needs of individuals, peoples, and organizations.

Ethical Decision-Making

  • Members are expected to use their professional and ethical judgment when making decisions.
  • Ethical awareness is crucial in noticing ethical issues, which can lead to ethical practice.
  • Biases, such as salience, confirmation bias, loss aversion, and dissonance reduction, should be considered when making ethical decisions.

Record Keeping and Confidentiality

  • Records should be systematic, detailed, accurate, up-to-date, and relevant to professional work.
  • Clients have a legal right to access their records, and confidentiality should be maintained, unless there are legal or safeguarding concerns.

Confidentiality in Specific Contexts

  • With children and young people, discuss and agree on who will have access to information, considering 'Gillick competence'.
  • During training, no academic/training documents should identify clients, and express consent should be obtained for audio- or video-recording interactions.

Legal Frameworks

  • Relevant legislation includes the UK Data Protection Act, 2018, the Freedom of Information Act, and the Mental Capacity Act.
  • All personally identifiable data held about a service user is subject to these regulations.

Information Governance

  • Therapists should make, keep, and disclose information in records in accordance with national policy and legislation, and organizational policies and procedures.
  • Records should be systematic, detailed, accurate, and up-to-date, and clients have the right to access them.
  • Sharing records with service users supports a collaborative approach and enables full and effective involvement.

Quiz: Understanding Loss Aversion and Beliefs about Disclosure Test your knowledge on loss aversion and beliefs about disclosure with this informative quiz. Explore the concept of loss aversion and how it affects decision-making. Discover how beliefs about disclosure impact honesty and behavior in controlled conditions. Enhance your understanding of these psychological biases and their implications in various situations. Challenge yourself and see how well you grasp these fascinating topics!

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