## Questions and Answers

How do you rationalize the denominator of a surd?

Multiply the numerator and denominator by the conjugate

What is the first step to solve equations involving surds?

Move any constant factors to the side

In simplifying surds, what should be done if the indices are different?

Leave them alone

What is the correct way to deal with addition and subtraction of surds?

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If given the equation \(y = 2rac{3}{x}\), what is the value of x?

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What should be done after rationalizing the denominator when solving equations involving surds?

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What is the rationalized form of $\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$?

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Simplify $5\sqrt{18} - 2\sqrt{50}$.

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Evaluate $\left(\sqrt{5}\right)^3$.

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Solve for $x$ in the equation: $\sqrt{x} + 3 = 7$.

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Simplify $\frac{3\sqrt{5}}{\sqrt{20}}$.

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What is the value of $\sqrt{81} \div \sqrt{9}$?

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## Study Notes

## Surds and Indices

Surds and indices are fundamental concepts in mathematics, essential for understanding algebraic manipulations and calculus. Surds are irrational numbers, often expressed as the square root of another number. Indices, on the other hand, refer to powers or exponents, indicating how many times a base number is multiplied by itself.

## Rationalizing Denominators

Rationalizing the denominator of a surd involves multiplying both the numerator and the denominator by the conjugate, which is the same expression with the signs reversed.

Example:

To rationalize the denominator of (2\sqrt{3}), we multiply the numerator and denominator by (2\sqrt{3}) and (2\sqrt{3}), respectively:

(2\sqrt{3} \times 2\sqrt{3} = 4)

So, (2\sqrt{3} = \frac{4}{\sqrt{3}}).

## Solving Equations Involving Surds

To solve equations involving surds, follow these steps:

- Move any constant factors to the side, if necessary.
- Rationalize the denominator, if possible.
- Solve the equation for the unknown variable.

Example:

Solve (2\sqrt{x} = 3\sqrt{y}):

Step 1: Divide both sides by (2).

(\sqrt{x} = \frac{3}{\sqrt{y}})

Since we cannot compare one root with another directly, we need to square both sides of the equation:

(x = \frac{9}{y})

## Operations with Surds

When dealing with surds, there are specific rules for addition and subtraction:

- Add or subtract only like terms, i.e., those with the same index.
- If the indices are different, leave them alone.
- Simplify by rationalizing the denominator if possible.

Example:

Perform the following operation: (2\sqrt{2} + \sqrt{5} - 3\sqrt{3}):

Since all terms have the same index, we can add and subtract them directly:

(\sqrt{8} + \sqrt{5} - 3\sqrt{3} = \sqrt{8} + \sqrt{5} - 3\sqrt{3})

Now, since we cannot compare one root with another directly, we leave these terms as they are.

## Simplifying Surds

Simplifying surds involves finding their equivalent decimal form or expressing them using other known surds. This is often done through the use of fractional exponents or radical equivalents.

Example:

Simplify (2\sqrt{25}) and (4\sqrt{8}):

For (2\sqrt{25}), we see that it equals (2 \times 5), which is equivalent to (10):

[ 2\sqrt{25} = 2 \times 5 = 10 ]

For (4\sqrt{8}), we rationalize the denominator to get:

[\sqrt{8} = \frac{\sqrt{2} \times \sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{2}} = \sqrt{2} ]

Then, we multiply and divide by (2) to obtain:

[ 4\sqrt{8} = 4 \times \sqrt{2} \times 2 = 8 ]

So, (4\sqrt{8}) is also equivalent to (8).

## Laws of Indices

There are several laws governing the behavior of indices that are useful when dealing with surds:

- Product rule: (a^m \times a^n = a^{m+n})
- Quotient rule: (a^m / a^n = a^{m-n})
- Power rule: ((a^m)^n = a^{mn})
- Zero exponent rule: (a^0 = 1) for (a > 0)
- Negative exponent rule: (a^{-n} = \frac{1}{a^n}) for (a > 0)

These laws allow us to simplify complex expressions involving multiple indices.

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## Description

Test your knowledge on surds and indices through questions on rationalizing denominators, solving equations involving surds, operations with surds, and simplifying surds. Understand fundamental concepts and rules related to irrational numbers and exponents.