Sterilization and Disinfection Quiz
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Sterilization and Disinfection Quiz

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@RichTourmaline9881

Questions and Answers

Which of the following accurately describes the difference between sterilization and disinfection?

Sterilization kills all microorganisms including spores, while disinfection kills most microorganisms but not bacterial spores

Which of the following is NOT a factor determining the effectiveness of disinfectants?

Color of the disinfectant

What is the main disadvantage of using iodophors as a disinfectant?

They have a strong unpleasant odor

Why is it recommended to disinfect alginate, a hydrocolloid impression material, by spraying rather than dipping it in the disinfectant?

<p>Spraying ensures better dimensional stability of the impression material</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of benzalkonium chloride in dental disinfection?

<p>It is effective against sporeless microorganisms except for M. tuberculosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it important to pay attention to protective measures against splashing contaminated water during dental procedures?

<p>To prevent airborne contamination and cross-contamination</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key factor for the accuracy of final dentures?

<p>Dimensional stability of impression materials</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be checked intraorally by the dentist before the glazing phase?

<p>Marginal fit, contours, and primary contact areas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What ensures the transfer of patient's personal preferences and/or morphopsychological characteristics to the technician?

<p>Documentation communication through digital technology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a reason for choosing fixed prostheses for most patients according to the text?

<p>Insufficient performances of removable dentures</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is considered a procedure of great importance in finishing a fixed prosthesis ready for cementation?

<p>Cementation and finishing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is crucial for making transfers in a shorter time in the most ideal way according to the text?

<p>The DSD protocol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ultimate challenge for dentists and dental technicians?

<p>To improve professional services while supporting each other</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do dental technicians expect from dentists in terms of communication?

<p>Clear instructions in a comprehensive dental laboratory form</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are common problems reported by dental technicians about dentists?

<p>Inadequate occlusal reduction for crown preparations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factors should a dentist pay attention to when sending a fixed prosthesis job to the technician?

<p>Tooth preparation, impression material, and color</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the greatest difficulties experienced by dental laboratory technicians?

<p>Producing restorations for insufficiently reduced teeth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is essential for the dentist to provide to the laboratory technician in constructing a fixed partial denture?

<p>Accurate usable registrations for articulator orientation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the key responsibilities of the dental laboratory in prosthetic dentistry?

<p>Preparing a prosthesis based on specific instructions from the dentist</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the dental laboratory technicians in the dental health team?

<p>Designing and preparing dental prostheses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of effective communication between the dentist and the dental laboratory?

<p>Ensures accurate fabrication of dental prostheses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What knowledge and skills should dental laboratory technicians possess?

<p>Observing possible situations in treatment from their perspective</p> Signup and view all the answers

Can the dentist delegate laboratory procedures to technicians?

<p>Yes, only for cosmetic dental procedures</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes the Prosthetic Dentistry department from other dentistry departments?

<p>It involves both dentist and technician in treatment stages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between fixed implant prostheses and tooth supported fixed prostheses?

<p>The level of mobility due to bone elasticity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor plays an important role in reflecting the correct location of the implants on the 3-D main study model?

<p>Impression technique and sensitivty</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is defined as the state of full adaptation to abutments without applying tensile, compressive and bending forces when implant-supported prostheses are not under the influence of occlusal forces?

<p>Passive fit</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is considered clinically acceptable in terms of marginal openings in studies?

<p>100-150 μm</p> Signup and view all the answers

How has the use of an intraoral scanner improved the evaluation of impressions in dentistry?

<p>By enabling easy evaluation by both the physician and the technician</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential source of cross-infection in dentistry despite having effective antibacterial properties?

<p>Plaster models obtained from the impression</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main reason for adding surfactants to vinyl polysiloxane impression materials?

<p>To increase water absorption in disinfecting solutions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended disinfection period for hydrophilic polyvinyl siloxane impression materials?

<p>10 minutes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why should prolonged immersion of hydrophilic polyvinyl siloxane in disinfecting solution be avoided?

<p>To maintain the dimensional stability of the material</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of impression material showed more dimensional changes than other types when disinfected with certain solutions?

<p>Zinc oxide eugenol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of washing the impression under water even before the disinfection process?

<p>To reduce microbial accumulation and organic residue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has emerged as an alternative method for disinfection of dental impression materials due to negative effects of chemical disinfectants?

<p>UV (Ultraviolet) rays</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why must visibly soiled surfaces be cleaned before ultraviolet light disinfection of dental impressions?

<p>To reduce microbial accumulation and organic residue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the wavelength used when using the dental ultraviolet room for disinfecting impressions?

<p>$254$ nm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential harm associated with exposure to ultraviolet light?

<p>$Increased$ risk of eye damage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the common problems reported by respondent technicians about dentists?

<p>Inadequate occlusal reduction for crown preparations, poor impressions, absence of rest preparation for removable partial dentures</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the factors that a dentist should pay attention to when sending a fixed prosthesis job to the technician?

<p>Tooth preparation, impression material, impression method, planning (material selection, body type), color, aesthetics, occlusal records, information about the implant used, if available, and disinfection of the impressions taken</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ultimate challenge for dentists and dental technicians?

<p>Not perfection, but the pursuit of excellence for patients despite their financial resources</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be included in a comprehensive dental laboratory form for effective dentist-technician communication?

<p>A necessary checklist, required components of restorations with illustrations, and additional information that the dentist feels is necessary for each individual situation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the next responsibility of the dentist in the construction of a fixed partial denture after tooth preparation?

<p>Making registrations of maxillomandibular relations so that the casts can be oriented in the articulator</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the strategic directions for the dental technician in fixed crown/bridge treatment?

<p>Framework type, occlusal surface, type of occlusion, pontic design, and margin design</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the responsibility of the dental laboratory in preparing a prosthesis?

<p>To prepare a prosthesis according to the specific instructions given by the dentist.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the key responsibilities of the dental laboratory technicians?

<p>To observe possible situations in treatment from their own perspective and to prepare a prosthesis according to specific instructions from the dentist.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What knowledge and skills should dental laboratory technicians possess?

<p>They should have the knowledge and skills to observe possible situations in treatment from their own perspective.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of effective communication between the dentist and the dental laboratory?

<p>It ensures the transfer of patient's personal preferences and/or morphopsychological characteristics to the technician.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What distinguishes the Prosthetic Dentistry department from other dentistry departments?

<p>It has treatment stages in which the technician also plays an important role.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Can the dentist delegate laboratory procedures to technicians?

<p>Yes, the dentist has the knowledge and authority to delegate laboratory procedures to technicians according to the patient's functional and aesthetic needs.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the main causes of dimensional shrinkage in elastomeric impression materials?

<p>Loss of volatile components during polymerization, water loss, and insufficient elastic recovery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the advantage of the DSD protocol according to the text?

<p>Enables transfers in a shorter time in the most ideal way</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main role of the dentist in the finishing of a fixed prosthesis ready for cementation?

<p>Checking marginal fit, contours, and primary contact areas intraorally</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should the physician do depending on the patient's financial possibilities?

<p>Choose the type of infrastructure and the right material for the superstructure, and convey this information to the technician in writing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be ensured in terms of the impression material's dimensional stability?

<p>Delivery to the technician at the right time</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key factor for the accuracy of final dentures?

<p>Dimensional stability of the impression material</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main factor affecting passive fit of implant-supported prostheses?

<p>Impression technique and sensitivity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is considered clinically acceptable in terms of marginal openings in studies?

<p>Marginal openings between 100 and 150 μm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the potential harm associated with exposure to ultraviolet light during disinfection?

<p>Skin damage and increased risk of cancer</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is cross-contamination in dentistry and how does it occur?

<p>The transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from one person to another through contaminated surfaces or materials.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of benzalkonium chloride in dental disinfection?

<p>It is an effective disinfectant to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it essential for the dentist to provide appropriate storage and disinfected materials to the dental laboratory?

<p>To prevent the transmission of infections and ensure the safety of dental technicians and patients.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the factors determining the effectiveness of disinfectants?

<p>The structure of the disinfectant, Concentration, Application method, Application time</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the sterilization methods mentioned for dental purposes?

<p>UV (Ultraviolet) rays, Direct current discharge, Steam autoclave, Ethylene oxide gas autoclave, Argon radio frequency discharge, Microwave sterilization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the chemical disinfectants used in dental impressions?

<p>Glutaraldehyde, Iodophors, Sodium hypochlorite, Hexachlorophene, Benzalkonium chloride</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the stages involved in the disinfection of impression materials and prostheses?

<p>Washing dentures, Disinfecting impressions, Discarding pumice, Changing burs, Taking protective measures, Cleaning contaminated areas, Wearing disposable aprons</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the methods of application for chemical disinfectants on dental impressions?

<p>Immersion and Spray</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended disinfection method for hydrocolloid impression materials?

<p>Spraying</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it important to avoid prolonged immersion of hydrophilic polyvinyl siloxane in disinfecting solution?

<p>To prevent reduction in dimensional stability of the impression material due to additional ingredients in the disinfectant solution.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of effective communication between the dentist and the dental laboratory?

<p>It ensures the transfer of patient's personal preferences and/or morphopsychological characteristics to the technician.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has emerged as an alternative method for disinfection of dental impression materials due to negative effects of chemical disinfectants?

<p>Disinfection using UV (Ultraviolet) rays.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are common problems reported by dental technicians about dentists?

<p>Lack of effective communication, improper disinfection of impressions, and inadequate washing of impressions before disinfection.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is considered a procedure of great importance in finishing a fixed prosthesis ready for cementation?

<p>Washing the impression under water and cleaning it with a brush and detergent.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of impression material showed more dimensional changes than other types when disinfected with certain solutions?

<p>Alginate and zinc oxide eugenol materials.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main disadvantage of using iodophors as a disinfectant?

<p>Iodophors can cause a potential source of cross-infection in dentistry despite having effective antibacterial properties.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main reason for adding surfactants to vinyl polysiloxane impression materials?

<p>To increase water absorption when immersed in disinfecting solutions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is it crucial for making transfers in a shorter time in the most ideal way according to the text?

<p>To avoid causing a reduction in the dimensional stability of the impression material.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of benzalkonium chloride in dental disinfection?

<p>It is effective in reducing the amount of microbial accumulation and organic residue in the measure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Due to the tooth loss, preferability of ______ porstheses for most of the patients, insufficient performances of removable dentures, psychological effects of teeth loss and desires of the old-aged “baby-boomers” generation, predictable long term success of implant supported prostheses, advantages of the implant supported restorations and increased awareness and conciousness of the society increased the ratio of implant choice for treatment.

<p>fixed</p> Signup and view all the answers

It is the ______'s great responsibility to deliver the measure to the technician at the right time. Choosing Colour: In addition to using various methods such as photography and video shooting, choosing colors with correct and appropriate light and color scale suitable for the brands that the technician works with eliminates errors that may occur especially in aesthetic areas.

<p>physician</p> Signup and view all the answers

The advantage of the DSD protocol is that it enables to make these ______ in a shorter time in the most ideal way. With better communication, the patient's personal preferences and/or morphopsychological characteristics are transferred to the technician and near-perfect restorations can be obtained (Coachman, 2012).

<p>transfers</p> Signup and view all the answers

The continuous evaporation of volatile substances from the polymerized elastomeric impression material explains why long ______ times affect the possible increase in impression size. A study has shown that conventional impression materials all contract from the occlusal face, while expanding from the axial walls, especially near the collar regions.

<p>residence</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the dimensional stability ability of the ______ material, it should be delivered to the technician at the right time. The dimensional stability of ______ materials is a key factor for the accuracy of final dentures.

<p>impression</p> Signup and view all the answers

By using digital technology, the treatment offered to the patient at the beginning with dynamic documentation is to be carried to the final in a ______ way. In particular, the smile design is prepared according to the diagnosis models taken by the technician.

<p>similar</p> Signup and view all the answers

The responsibility of the dental laboratory is to prepare a prosthesis according to the specific instructions given by the ______.

<p>dentist</p> Signup and view all the answers

Dental laboratories are responsible for preparing the desired prosthesis, supported by communication through the form and materials sent to them by the ______.

<p>dentist</p> Signup and view all the answers

The dentist also has the knowledge and authority to delegate laboratory procedures to technicians according to the patient's functional and aesthetic ______.

<p>needs</p> Signup and view all the answers

The dental laboratory technicians are important members of the dental health ______.

<p>team</p> Signup and view all the answers

The Prosthetic Dentistry department is not just about the dentist; it has treatment stages in which the technician also plays an important ______.

<p>role</p> Signup and view all the answers

The dental laboratory technicians should have the knowledge and skills to observe possible situations in treatment from their own ______.

<p>perspective</p> Signup and view all the answers

Disinfection is the process of destroying microorganisms (except bacterial spores) on inanimate substances and surfaces or stopping their reproduction. Disinfectants can be classified as low risk, medium risk and high risk groups according to the risk of infection. Disinfectants in the high risk group are used in ______.

<p>dentistry</p> Signup and view all the answers

In order to prevent cross-contamination in prosthetic procedures, methods such as adding disinfectant to alginate powder, nanotechnology, and adding disinfectant to gypsum powder have been suggested among alternative impression disinfection methods. Disinfection solutions used in dentistry; combined synthetic phenol compounds are iodophor, glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite, 0.25% benzalkonium chloride, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, ______.

<p>chlorhexidine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Factors determining the effectiveness of disinfectants: The structure of the disinfectant Concentration Application method Application ______.

<p>time</p> Signup and view all the answers

Sterilization methods are; sterilization of the dimensions with UV (Ultraviolet) rays, direct current discharge, steam autoclave, ethylene oxide gas autoclave, argon radio frequency discharge and microwave ______.

<p>sterilization</p> Signup and view all the answers

Disinfection of impression materials and prostheses is done in seven stages; 1. All dentures removed from the mouth should be washed under running water and cleaned and disinfected with an ultrasonic cleaner. 2. All impressions should be disinfected after rinsing with water and then plaster models should be obtained. 3. Pumice should be discarded after use. 4. Burs should be changed after each use and stored in ______.

<p>disinfectant</p> Signup and view all the answers

Chemical disinfectants can be applied in 2 different ways; by dipping the impression or by spraying the impression. Immersion disinfection ensures that all surfaces of the dental impression are exposed to the disinfectant, but hydrocolloids and polyether materials cannot be immersed in disinfectants due to the absorption phenomenon. The spray disinfection method reduces the possibility of degradation, especially in hydrocolloids and polyether, and also uses less disinfectant solution but may not reach the abrasive areas. It has been reported that hydrocolloid impression materials carry 2 to 5 times more microorganisms than elastomers. During the disinfection process, the impression material should not lose its dimensional stability, accuracy and critical surface properties. Due to their hydrophilic properties, it has been reported that hydrocolloid impression materials undergo more dimensional distortion during the disinfection process. For this reason, it is recommended to disinfect alginate, which is one of the hydrocolloid impression materials, by spraying, not by ______.

<p>dipping</p> Signup and view all the answers

Similarity between fixed implant prostheses and tooth supported fixed prostheses during the construction phase is present whereas the main difference arise from the tolarance to the upper prosthetic structure. Rather than natural tooth, osteointegrated implants does not have the periodontal ligaments and they have slight mobility only from the elasticity of bone structure. Because of that impression technique and sensitivty plays important role for reflecting the correct and exact location of the implants on the 3-D main study model, this phase of construction is so vital for ______ supported prostheses.

<p>implant</p> Signup and view all the answers

Passive fit is defined as the state of full adaptation to abutments without applying tensile, compressive and bending forces when implant-supported prostheses are not under the influence of occlusal forces. One of the most important stages to achieve passive compliance is the ______ stage.

<p>impression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Factors affecting passive fit can be listed as are the number of implants, implant localization, impression material used, type of restoration (cemented / screwed), type of abutment used (straight / angled), design and configuration of the metal substructure, substructure material (nickel-chrome / titanium / zirconium),the design of the prosthetic restoration (one-piece/multi-piece), the experience of the technician at the laboratory stage and the problems to be encountered during the labaratory phase. Marginal mismatches that are invisible to the naked eye or not detectable by dental instruments are considered clinically acceptable. Marginal openings between 100 and 150 μm were considered clinically acceptable in ______.

<p>studies</p> Signup and view all the answers

At the same time, since the impresions can be stored in digital environment; There will be no problem of space due to the storage of plaster models, and the dimensions can be stored for a long time without being damaged. By not using spoons, splint materials, impression materials and plasters, both the cost of these materials can be saved, and the impressions can be sent to the laboratory instantly in electronic environment, thus speeding up the ______.

<p>treatment</p> Signup and view all the answers

In order to carry out infection control in dentistry, as a basic principle, every patient should be considered as a potential infection and precautions should be taken without any discrimination. For this purpose, sterilization and disinfection, which are the most important stages of infection control, should be applied well. The devices and surfaces used should be purified from organic matter and pathogens before disinfection and sterilization processes. This process is called ______.

<p>decontamination</p> Signup and view all the answers

The transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from one person to another is called cross-contamination, and the infection that occurs in this way is called cross-infection. Sources of infection in dentistry are hands, saliva, blood, clots, liquid droplets, instruments and devices used in dentistry. During dental procedures, the patient's mucous membrane and gums may be damaged, as a result, saliva and blood can easily enter the impression material during the impression taking process. Bacteria and viruses contaminate the impression material. Dental impression materials, whose dimensional stability and precision are improving day by day, are a potential source of ______, although they have effective antibacterial properties, and therefore they can pose a risk in terms of health.

<p>cross-infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

The interaction between dentists and dental laboratory technicians has been termed a ‘‘love- hate relationship’’, and the laboratory work authorization has been called the most frequently used and abused form of communication between them. Dentists and dental technicians are a team in ensuring proper prosthetic design, and each team member must support the other to continually improve professional services. The ultimate challenge is not perfection, but the pursuit of excellence for patients despite their financial resources. When necessary, dental technicians do not only do the desired job; They must be capable of noticing situations that require control such as deficiencies or wrongs in the desired job and they must be accessible at any time. Therefore, it is the dentist's responsibility to establish correct and respectful communication with the appropriate laboratory and experienced technician. 2. What the Technicians Expect from the Dentists Materdomini stated that “communication is the key to success in cosmetic dentistry/laboratory relations.”. Verbal communication is traditionally unreliable. Instructions for the work assigned to the dental laboratory technician should be clear. A comprehensive dental laboratory form with a necessary checklist is an essential element for dentist-technician communication. The form describes required components of restorations with illustrations and allows for additional information that the dentist feels is necessary for each individual situation (Pic-1). In a study (Barbara et al., 2005), dental technicians' complaints about dentists were evaluated. Common problems rcportcd by respondent technicians included inadequate occlusal reduction for crown prcparations (47%), poor impressions (40%),and the abscncc of rest preparation for removable partial dentures (20%). Dentists have a great role to play in eliminating these problems. 3. Information to be Given by the Dentists The factors that a dentist should pay attention to when sending a fixed prosthesis job to the technician are tooth preparation, impression material, impression method, planning (material selection, body type), color, aesthetics, occlusal records, information about the implant used, if available, and disinfection of the impressions taken. In addition, there should be an information sheet containing more detailed information about the work to be done. It should be written in this paper: 1. The patient’s name, gender, age 2. The date when materials taken by patient 3. If is is necessary patient’ s photos, videos 4. The patient’s expectations 5. The type of occlusion 6. Dentist’ s name, sign, phone number and referance number Necessary information in fixed crown/bridge treatment: Framework type, occlusal surface, type of occlusion, pontic design and margin design are are strategic directions for the dental technician. · Preparation: Preparations carefully prepared with margins that are regular and definitive, have axial surfaces in harmony with parallelism when necessary, and have surfaces and contours that are smooth, nicely finished, and devoid of undercuts make it possible for the dentist to obtain accurate impressions and for the technician to work precisely. One of the greatest difficulties experienced by the dental laboratory technician is the fabrication of restorations for teeth that have been insufficiently reduced, particularly for veneer crowns. Occlusal surfaces should be reduced sufficiently to allow space for producing a harmonious occlusal pattern. Axial surfaces on teeth prepared for veneer crowns should be reduced to permit the fabrication of esthetic veneers with an adequate bulk of veneering material to develop lifelike colors, without exceeding the bounds of normal tooth morphology, and where recessed seats and internal attachments are required, the preparation should be reduced to permit their proper placement. All of this reduction of the tooth must be done and, at the same time, the demands of pulp preservation and good operative procedure must be met. The laboratory technician must realize that the preservation of the ‘vitality of the tooth is paramount. If tooth reduction must be limited, both the dentist and the technician must use all of the care, skill, and artistry that they have at their command to preserve the pulp and still produce a clinically and esthetically acceptable restoration. · Occlusal Recording: The next responsibility of the dentist in the construction of a fixed partial denture is to make registrations of maxillomandibular relations so that the casts can be oriented in the articulator. The dentist must select the method or technique that is suitable, and provide the laboratory technician with accurate usable registrations. If a simple hinge articulator is to be used, an accurate interocclusal record of centric relation is necessary. If adjustable articulators are to be used, the registration should be as sophisticated as the capabilities of the articulator and the dentist permit. The more complicated the articulator and registrations used, the greater is the responsibility of the dentist in personally transferring these registrations to the articulator and in setting and adjusting it. In occlusal recordings taken by biting wax or silicone, it should be ensured that the wax is removed from the mouth at the right time, and if necessary, bite recordings should be taken several times to find the correct closure. It is important for the technician to apply the correct procedure, especially in full mouth cuts or in patients with different bites, to take the bite record before and after tooth cutting. · Impression: The most important key in the impression stage is the dentist's selection of the right impression method and material. In the impression taken, it should be ensured that the collar regions, preparation borders, walls and proximal regions are clear.

<p>blank</p> Signup and view all the answers

In order to provide effective disinfection, the American Dental Association (ADA) recommends that the alginate impression material is placed in a closed bag and kept there for the required disinfection period in spray disinfection. Vinyl polysiloxane impression materials (VPS), from the group of elastomeric impression materials, are widely used due to their superior elastic properties, excellent dimensional stability and high accuracy. However, they are hydrophobic due to their chemical structure. To overcome this feature, manufacturers have added surfactants to these materials and classified them as hydrophilic VPS impression materials. Included surfactants increase water absorption when immersed in disinfecting solutions. Prolonged immersion of hydrophilic polyvinyl siloxane in disinfecting solution should be avoided. Leaving the material in the ______ solution for longer than the recommended immersion time may reduce the dimensional stability of the material as a result of the additional ingredients included in the formulation. In a study investigating the disinfection of polyvinyl siloxane and polyether impression materials, it was shown that adequate disinfection was provided in impression materials applied ______ for 10 minutes by spray or dipping method, and there was no bacterial growth in plaster models obtained from these impressions.

<p>disinfectant</p> Signup and view all the answers

In addition, it has been stated that Sars-Cov-2 virus, which has caused pandemics in recent years, is sensitive to disinfectants containing 75% ethanol and chlorine due to its oily bilayer structure. In a study examining the effectiveness of disinfectant materials used in dentistry on ______s on the surface of silicone, irreversible hydrocolloid and zinc oxide impression materials, it was determined that there was almost no ______ growth after 3 and 10 minutes of disinfection with iodine-based disinfectant solution (betadine). and at the end of 10-minute disinfection, only growth was observed on the surface of the zinc oxide impression material contaminated with C. albicans, and they also reported that complete disinfection was achieved at the end of 3 and 10 minutes disinfection with glutaraldehyde.

<p>microorganism</p> Signup and view all the answers

It is also recommended to wait for 3-10 minutes with hydrocolloid ______ materials with 1% sodium hypochlorite or 0.05% iodoform, 2% glutaraldehyde. When the ______ materials are disinfected using 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1.0% sodium hypochlorite and 2.2% glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite has been shown to cause the dimensional change at the lowest level. Among ______ materials, alginate and zinc oxide eugenol materials showed more dimensional changes than other additive type silicone and condensation type silicone materials. Consulting with the manufacturer of the ______ material before the procedure is beneficial in determining the method to be applied.

<p>impression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Zinc oxide eugenol impression materials are disinfected with ______ that do not contain chlorine compounds. Since polyether impression materials are hydrophilic, they are kept in sodium hypochlorite for 2-3 minutes or disinfected with a spray in order not to impair their dimensional stability. It is equally important not to rely solely on the short-term and weak disinfecting effect of ethyl alcohol or hydrogen peroxide.

<p>disinfectants</p> Signup and view all the answers

Before ultraviolet light disinfection, visibly soiled surfaces must be cleaned. The wavelength used when using the dental ultraviolet room is 254 nm, which has been reported to be very effective in disinfecting the ______. Exposure of humans to ultraviolet light is harmful and can cause eye damage and burns. Therefore, controlled use of Ultraviolet-C disinfection is required.

<p>impressions</p> Signup and view all the answers

In a survey study conducted in England in 2010, the impression disinfection protocols of dentists and dental technicians were evaluated. It was stated that 37.2% of the dentists washed the ______ with water before disinfection, and 2.6% of them removed the debris with the help of a brush. It has been reported that 50% of dental technicians disinfect the ______ regardless of the disinfection status of the impre.

<p>impressions</p> Signup and view all the answers

This cleaning and washing process is effective in reducing the amount of microbial accumulation and organic residue in the measure. The idea of disinfection of dental impression ______ using UV (Ultraviolet) rays has emerged as an alternative due to the negative effects of chemical disinfectants on the ______. When microorganisms are exposed to ultraviolet rays of a certain wavelength (200-280 nm), their ability to reproduce is destroyed and inactivation occurs faster, so they no longer pose a threat to humans.

<p>materials</p> Signup and view all the answers

Since ultraviolet light has a low penetrating power, it is not easily absorbed by organic materials. The wavelength used when using the dental ultraviolet room is 254 nm, which has been reported to be very effective in disinfecting the ______. Exposure of humans to ultraviolet light is harmful and can cause eye damage and burns. Therefore, controlled use of Ultraviolet-C disinfection is required.

<p>impressions</p> Signup and view all the answers

It was stated that 37.2% of the dentists washed the ______ with water before disinfection, and 2.6% of them removed the debris with the help of a brush. It has been reported that 50% of dental technicians disinfect the ______ regardless of the disinfection status of the impre.

<p>impressions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Exposure of humans to ultraviolet light is harmful and can cause eye damage and burns. Therefore, controlled use of Ultraviolet-C ______ is required. In a survey study conducted in England in 2010, the impression ______ protocols of dentists and dental technicians were evaluated.

<p>disinfection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Disinfection and Sterilization

  • Disinfection is the process of destroying microorganisms (except bacterial spores) on inanimate substances and surfaces or stopping their reproduction.
  • Factors determining the effectiveness of disinfectants: structure of the disinfectant, concentration, application method, application time, and type of microorganisms.
  • Sterilization methods are:
    • UV (Ultraviolet) rays
    • Direct current discharge
    • Steam autoclave
    • Ethylene oxide gas autoclave
    • Argon radio frequency discharge
    • Microwave

Disinfection of Impression Materials and Prostheses

  • Disinfection of impression materials and prostheses is done in seven stages:
    1. Wash under running water and clean with an ultrasonic cleaner.
    2. Disinfect after rinsing with water and then obtain plaster models.
    3. Discard pumice after use.
    4. Change and store burs in a disinfectant solution.
  • Chemical disinfectants can be applied in 2 different ways: by dipping the impression or by spraying the impression.
  • Immersion disinfection ensures that all surfaces of the dental impression are exposed to the disinfectant, but hydrocolloids and polyether materials cannot be immersed due to the absorption phenomenon.
  • Spray disinfection method reduces the possibility of degradation and uses less disinfectant solution.

Impression Materials

  • Hydrocolloid impression materials carry 2 to 5 times more microorganisms than elastomers.
  • During the disinfection process, the impression material should not lose its dimensional stability, accuracy, and critical surface properties.
  • Hydrocolloid impression materials undergo more dimensional distortion during the disinfection process due to their hydrophilic properties.
  • It is recommended to disinfect alginate by spraying, not by dipping.

Fixed Prostheses

  • The main difference between fixed implant prostheses and tooth-supported fixed prostheses is the tolerance to the upper prosthetic structure.
  • Impression technique and sensitivity play an important role in reflecting the correct location of the implants on the 3-D main study model.
  • Passive fit is defined as the state of full adaptation to abutments without applying tensile, compressive, and bending forces when implant-supported prostheses are not under the influence of occlusal forces.
  • Factors affecting passive fit include:
    • Number of implants
    • Implant localization
    • Impression material used
    • Type of restoration (cemented/screwed)
    • Type of abutment used (straight/angled)
    • Design and configuration of the metal substructure
    • Substructure material (nickel-chrome/titanium/zirconium)
    • Design of the prosthetic restoration (one-piece/multi-piece)
    • Experience of the technician at the laboratory stage
    • Problems encountered during the laboratory phase

Marginal Openings

  • Marginal mismatches that are invisible to the naked eye or not detectable by dental instruments are considered clinically acceptable.
  • Marginal openings between 100 and 150 μm were considered clinically acceptable in studies.

Communication and Dental Laboratory

  • Effective communication between the dentist and the dental laboratory is crucial for successful treatment.
  • The dentist should provide appropriate storage and disinfected materials to the dental laboratory.
  • The dentist can delegate laboratory procedures to technicians according to the patient's functional and aesthetic needs.
  • Dental laboratory technicians should have knowledge and skills to observe possible situations in treatment from their own perspective.
  • The Prosthetic Dentistry department is not just about the dentist; it has treatment stages in which the technician also plays an important role.

Other

  • Choosing colors with correct and appropriate light and color scale suitable for the brands that the technician works with eliminates errors in aesthetic areas.
  • The advantage of the DSD protocol is that it enables making transfers in a shorter time in the most ideal way.
  • The dental laboratory technicians are important members of the dental health team.
  • Cross-contamination in dentistry occurs through the transfer of microorganisms from one patient to another through contaminated surfaces, instruments, or impression materials.

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Test your knowledge of sterilization and disinfection with this quiz. Learn about the differences between these processes, the classification of disinfectants, and their applications in dentistry and prosthetic procedures.

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