## Questions and Answers

What is the primary purpose of statistics?

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Which of the following is NOT a common measure of central tendency?

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What is the formula for calculating the arithmetic mean?

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How is the median calculated when there is an even number of observations?

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Which of the following is NOT a type of descriptive statistic?

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What is the primary difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?

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What is the formula for calculating the median of an odd-numbered dataset?

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What is the value that represents the mode in a dataset?

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Which statistical measure indicates how widely spread out values are within a dataset?

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What is the primary goal of inferential statistics?

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What does statistical significance determine in hypothesis testing?

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## Study Notes

## Statistics

Statistics is the branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and application of data. It involves using tools such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to make decisions based on data. Stats.com defines statistics as "the science of learning from sample data to make statements about populations".

### Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics are methods used to summarize, describe, and present data in an organized and meaningful manner. They involve measuring central tendency, variability, skewness, and other features of data sets. Common measures of central tendency include mean, median, mode, range, interquartile range (IQR), standard deviation, variance, and quartiles.

#### Mean

The arithmetic mean, commonly referred to as the average, is calculated by summing all the values in a dataset and dividing it by the total number of observations. In symbols, the formula for the mean is given as:

`X̄ = (Σx) / n`

, where `n`

is the sample size, `Σx`

denotes the summation of xi (where i ranges from 1 to n), and `X̄`

represents the mean.

#### Median

The median is the middle value of a group when arranged in ascending order. If there is an even number of observations, the median is the average of the two middle numbers. The formula for calculating the median is:

For odd numbered data set:

```
Median(X) = X_((n+1)/2)
```

For even numbered data set:

```
Median(X) = (X_n/2 + X_n/2 + 1) / 2
```

where `n`

is the sample size.

#### Mode

Mode is the value which appears most frequently in a dataset. For example, if numbers 1 through 10 appear twice each except for the number 7, which appears three times, then the mode is 7.

#### Standard Deviation

The standard deviation measures how widely spread out values are from each other within a dataset, with higher values indicating greater variability. The formula for calculating the standard deviation is given by:

`σ = sqrt(Σ (xi - μ)^2 / n)`

where `σ`

represents the standard deviation, `Σ`

denotes the summation of `xi - μ`

, and `n`

is the sample size.

### Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics are used to draw conclusions about a population based on data collected from a sample of that population. The primary goal is to make inferences about a population mean or proportion, and inferential statistics often involves hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical significance.

#### Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a statistical technique that compares a hypothesis about a population parameter with the corresponding sample statistic to determine whether the hypothesis is plausible given the sample data. It involves setting up a null hypothesis (H₀) and an alternative hypothesis (H₁), and using a significance level (α) to determine the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.

#### Confidence Intervals

A confidence interval is a range of values within which an unknown population parameter is believed to fall. Confidence intervals are calculated using the sample mean and standard deviation. The formula for calculating the confidence interval is:

`(X̄ - z*(σ/√n), X̄ + z*(σ/√n))`

, where `X̄`

represents the sample mean, `σ`

denotes the standard deviation, `n`

is the sample size, `z`

is the critical value at the chosen confidence level.

#### Statistical Significance

Statistical significance refers to whether the results of a statistical analysis are likely to have occurred by chance, or if they are a result of the underlying phenomenon being studied. A p-value is used to determine statistical significance. If the p-value is less than a predetermined α level (e.g., 0.05), the null hypothesis is rejected, and the result is considered statistically significant.

In conclusion, statistics is a crucial tool for understanding and making decisions based on data. Descriptive statistics help in summarizing and describing data, while inferential statistics allow us to draw conclusions about a population based on sample data. Both are essential for interpreting and analyzing data in various fields.

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