## Questions and Answers

What are the pros of using the mean as a measure of central tendency?

Easily put in equations & manipulated algebraically

What are the cons of using the mean as a measure of central tendency?

Influenced by extreme scores, called Outliers (especially when n is small)

What is resistance in statistics?

Resistance: a measure’s sensitivity to outlying values

How does the median handle outlying values?

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How is the mode affected by outlying values?

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## Study Notes

### Measures of Central Tendency

- Central tendency refers to the "middle" or "center" of a variable's distribution, described by a single score that best represents the entire distribution.
- There are three main measures of central tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode.

### The Mean

- The mean is the mathematical center or average value, also known as the "balancing point" of the distribution.
- The mean is calculated by summing all the values and dividing by the total number of values (n).
- The formula for the mean is: ̄𝑿 = (∑ 𝑿𝒊) / 𝒏 for samples, and 𝝁= 𝒏 (∑ 𝑿 𝒊 ) / 𝑵 for populations.
- The mean is easily manipulated algebraically and plays a critical role in inferential statistics, but it is influenced by extreme scores (outliers) and cannot be used for nominal or ordinal data.

### The Median

- The median is the score that divides the distribution in half, corresponding to the 50th percentile, and is often referred to as the "middle location" in a distribution.
- The median is calculated by finding the middle value when the data is arranged in order, and is more resistant to outlying values than the mean.
- The median is not easily used in equations or algebraic manipulations.

### The Mode

- The mode is the most frequently occurring value in a distribution.
- The mode is not affected by outlying values, but it is not easily used in algebraic manipulations or equations.

### Comparing Measures of Central Tendency

- Each measure of central tendency has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which to use depends on the context and type of data.

### The Harmonic Mean

- The harmonic mean is another measure of central tendency, and it is used in specific contexts, such as in the relationship between the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means.
- The relationship between the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means is: 𝐻 ≤ 𝐺 ≤ 𝑥̅.

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## Description

Test your understanding of calculating harmonic mean using a frequency table in statistics and probability theory. Practice finding the harmonic mean for different class intervals and frequencies.