3333 Week 7

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37 Questions

What are the two types of information carried by the speech signal?

Linguistic and indexical

Which of the following does intra-speaker variation in speech involve?

Changing the way one sounds based on style and formality

What factors contribute to inter-speaker variation in speech?

Age, gender, region, social class, and ethnicity

In speech production, what does social information refer to?

Speaker's age, gender, ethnicity, and social background

What does indexical information in speech signal convey?

Speaker's age, gender, ethnicity, regional and social background

What does linguistic information in speech signal pertain to?

The content of what was said

What is involved in speech accommodation?

Adapting speech to the audience's linguistic preferences

What factor mediated the strength of accommodation of New Zealand speakers towards an Australian English talker's pronunciation?

Linguistic bias

In which condition did New Zealand participants accommodate more towards the Australian talker's pronunciation?

Positive bias info about the Australian talker suggests he likes New Zealand

What reduces the perceived linguistic convergence between dyads?

Cognitive load

What predicts the increased likelihood of mutual romantic interest?

Greater accommodation in dyad’ use of function words

What can listeners identify about the speaker, even from rhythm & intonation alone?

Speaker's ethnicity

What do language attitudes reflect?

Speaker's social evaluations

What do social beliefs interact with in relation to language attitudes?

Listener's social judgments

What is the 'matched guise' paradigm used for in the context of the text?

To evaluate social traits of speakers based on their voice alone

What do listeners use as cues to social identities and associated stereotypes, according to the text?

Language and accent

What is linguistic stereotyping, as discussed in the text?

The phenomenon of using language and accent as cues to social identities and stereotypes

What do participants negatively evaluate in relation to non-standard accents, according to the text?

Speakers and accents perceived as non-standard

What can influence listeners' perceptions of non-native speakers, as mentioned in the text?

Visual cues, such as an Asian face

In what way are listeners' reactions to the speech of international teaching assistants influenced, according to the text?

More by the speaker's perceived ethnicity than their actual language proficiency or accent

What have studies focused on in American English dialect identification, according to the text?

Distinguishing between Standard American English, African American Vernacular English, and Chicano English

What does linguistic profiling involve, as discussed in the text?

Distinguishing between Black American and White American voices, with distinctive acoustic parameters influencing listeners' judgments

What does the phenomenon of 'Speaking While Black' refer to, as mentioned in the text?

The discrimination experienced by African Americans based on their speech, which can act as an indicator of their race

What did Bill Labov's study in New York City department stores find correlation between?

Pronunciation of the word 'floor' and social class

What did Norma Mendoza-Denton's study on Latina girl gangs in California find correlation between?

Pronunciation of the short i vowel /ɪ/ and length of eyeliner

What does Audience Design theory suggest about speakers' speech?

They accommodate their speech primarily to their audience

What did preliminary analysis of Gladys Berejiklian's press conferences show?

More new COVID-19 cases predicted significantly greater use of the PALM variant in her speech

What does speech accommodation refer to?

The process by which speakers' linguistic behavior converges or diverges based on their interlocutor

What did Babel's shadowing task in Wellington, NZ, demonstrate evidence for?

Convergence or divergence in participants' pronunciation, indicating dialect divergence and convergence

What is the most accessible mechanism for expressing identity, according to the text?

Language

Which theory suggests that speakers accommodate their speech primarily to their audience?

Audience Design theory

What did Bill Labov's study in New York City department stores find correlation between?

Pronunciation of the word 'floor' and social class

What did Norma Mendoza-Denton's study on Latina girl gangs in California find correlation between?

Pronunciation of the short i vowel /ɪ/ and length of eyeliner

What did Gladys Berejiklian's variable pronunciation of 'Dr Chant' in COVID-19 press conferences show?

Regional variation in vowel use in Australia

What did preliminary analysis of Gladys Berejiklian's press conferences show about the PALM variant in her speech?

More new COVID-19 cases predicted significantly greater use of the PALM variant

What did Gladys Berejiklian's style-shifting in speech, using the PALM variant, allow her to do in press conferences?

Take on a more serious stance

What does speech accommodation refer to?

The process by which speakers' linguistic behavior converges or diverges based on their interlocutor

Study Notes

Social Identity and Speech Production

  • Language is a primary means of expressing social identity and can vary based on social significance.
  • Bill Labov's study in New York City department stores found correlation between pronunciation of the word "floor" and social class, with Saks using more prestige variant [r].
  • Norma Mendoza-Denton's study on Latina girl gangs in California found correlation between pronunciation of the short i vowel /ɪ/ and length of eyeliner, signaling social affiliation.
  • Audience Design theory suggests speakers accommodate their speech primarily to their audience, as seen in Oprah Winfrey's variable use of [a:] and [aɪ] based on the ethnicity of the person being addressed.
  • Gladys Berejiklian's variable pronunciation of "Dr Chant" in COVID-19 press conferences showed regional variation in vowel use in Australia, with PALM /ɐː/ associated with formality and education.
  • Preliminary analysis of Gladys Berejiklian's press conferences showed that more new COVID-19 cases predicted significantly greater use of the PALM variant in her speech.
  • Gladys Berejiklian's style-shifting in speech, using the PALM variant, allowed her to take on a more serious stance in press conferences.
  • Speech accommodation refers to the process by which speakers' linguistic behavior converges or diverges based on their interlocutor, often driven by imitation or conscious choice.
  • Babel's shadowing task in Wellington, NZ, demonstrated evidence for convergence or divergence in participants' pronunciation, indicating dialect divergence and convergence.
  • Social identity is expressed symbolically through language, adornment, and possessions, with language being the most accessible mechanism for expressing identity.
  • Bill Labov's study showcased the correlation between linguistic variation and social class in New York City department stores.
  • Norma Mendoza-Denton's study highlighted the correlation between speech and bodily practices in Latina girl gangs, forming distinct youth gang styles.

Test your knowledge of speech accommodation, linguistic bias, language attitudes, and social identity in speech production with this comprehensive quiz. Explore topics such as linguistic profiling, social perception, and the role of language in expressing social identity. Perfect for linguistics enthusiasts and students studying sociolinguistics and social psychology.

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