Social Protection in Malawi: Poverty Targeting Mechanisms
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Social Protection in Malawi: Poverty Targeting Mechanisms

This quiz assesses knowledge on social protection in Malawi, focusing on poverty targeting mechanisms, headcounts, and ultra-poverty rates. It includes questions on improving attendance and dropout rates.

Created by
@WellInformedSugilite4006

Questions and Answers

Who implements PWP in Malawi?

All of the above

What is the approximate number of Malawians who work in one of the PWP for at least some days?

1.2 million

What is one of the ways school feeding supports learning in the classroom?

By relieving short-term hunger and reducing micronutrient deficiencies

What is the name of the fund that implements PWP in Malawi?

<p>Local Development Fund</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to research, what is one of the benefits of school feeding interventions?

<p>Mitigating micronutrient deficiencies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate number of districts that benefit from at least three PWP?

<p>Most districts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the organization that provides insurance products, such as insurance against illness and death?

<p>VSL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the estimated cost of the SCT at the current 159,857 beneficiary households?

<p>0.57 percent of GDP</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did the 2012/13 impact evaluation find regarding the impact of the LDF PWP on labour allocation?

<p>It did not have a measurable short-term effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main challenge for the Government according to the text?

<p>Timely procurement and delivery of the corn-soy blend</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the expected cost of the SCT when it reaches its goal of 319,000 households?

<p>1.1 percent of GDP</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the challenges faced by the WFP according to the text?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the poverty headcount in some districts in Malawi?

<p>80 percent</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a key issue with the targeting mechanism in Malawi?

<p>Lack of easily understood eligibility and targeting criteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the goal of the SCT program in each district?

<p>To cover 10 percent of the poorest labour-constraint households</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is another challenge faced by the WFP according to the text?

<p>Lack of complementary interventions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a challenge facing Malawi's social protection programmes?

<p>Inefficient programme delivery</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a consequence of the implementation of the FISP?

<p>Increased farm wages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a criticism of the FISP?

<p>Its objectives are unclear</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of social protection programmes in Malawi?

<p>They vary significantly in coverage amongst age-groups</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a consequence of coverage gaps in social protection programmes?

<p>Insufficient protection to poor and vulnerable individuals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a challenge in establishing the impact of the FISP?

<p>Difficulty in establishing causality</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential solution to inefficient targeting outcomes?

<p>Simplified targeting criteria</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a reason for coverage gaps in social protection programmes?

<p>Policy design</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a result of the 10 percent cut-off threshold in the SCT?

<p>High 'inclusion errors' due to regional disparities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do School Meals implementers focus on the most vulnerable districts?

<p>Given limited funding, it is a more cost-effective approach</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a challenge in the implementation of social protection programmes in Malawi?

<p>Limited coverage and fragmented system</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are administrative costs of Malawi's social protection programmes high?

<p>Due to the use of outside targeting staff</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a result of the limited coverage of social protection programmes in Malawi?

<p>Reduced effectiveness of interventions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an obstacle to better coordination and harmonization of social protection programmes in Malawi?

<p>Lack of integrated MIS and M&amp;E systems</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of transfers in Malawi's social protection programmes?

<p>They are often quite low and infrequently adjusted</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has been the inflation rate in Malawi?

<p>Around 20 percent</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary goal of school feeding programmes?

<p>To improve educational performance and reduce drop-out rates</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the focus of PWP activities?

<p>To support economic growth and increase resilience of local communities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do PWP operate on a seasonal basis?

<p>To provide limited employment opportunities to the poor during the non-farming season</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary target of PWP?

<p>Poor Malawians with few income generating opportunities</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do implementers ensure that the most vulnerable children receive daily school feeding?

<p>By targeting districts based on indicators of food insecurity and poverty</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of self-targeting in PWP?

<p>To minimize inclusion errors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of Malawian primary schools were covered by one of the school meal programmes in 2015?

<p>24 percent</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do PWP set wages to be equal or below market wages?

<p>To ensure that projects only attract labourers with few other income generating opportunities</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Social Protection in Malawi

  • Malawi has a poverty headcount of around 80% in some districts and ultra-poverty rates as high as 50% in others.
  • The country's social protection system faces challenges in targeting the poorest 10% due to the lack of easily understood eligibility and targeting criteria.
  • The government currently lacks M&E systems to adequately track implementation.

Social Cash Transfer (SCT) Programme

  • The SCT has an estimated cost of 0.57% of GDP, covering 159,857 beneficiary households.
  • The program aims to cover 10% of the poorest labor-constrained households in each district, with an estimated cost of 1.1% of 2015/16 GDP.
  • The SCT faces challenges in targeting the poorest 10% due to the lack of easily understood eligibility and targeting criteria.

School Feeding Programmes

  • School feeding programs primarily aim to improve enrollment and reduce drop-out rates, and under-nutrition must be tackled during a child's infant years.
  • Implementers stress the vital link between provision of food and attendance at school, and between good nutrition and educational performance.
  • School feeding is not implemented nationwide, with around 24% of 5,561 Malawian primary schools covered by one of the school meal programs.

Public Works Programmes (PWP)

  • PWP operate on a seasonal basis as a safety net during the non-farming season, where few income-generating activities are available for poor Malawians.
  • PWP focus on activities that support economic growth and increase resilience of local communities through forestry and irrigation programs.
  • Districts and schools are targeted based on indicators of food insecurity, poverty, gender disparities in schooling, education outcomes, and malnutrition.
  • PWP use self-targeting, where wages are set to be equal or below market wages for unskilled labor to ensure that projects only attract laborers with few other income-generating opportunities.

Challenges and Limitations

  • Coverage varies significantly amongst age groups, with school-age children and working-age adults better covered than infants, pre-school children, and the elderly.
  • Existing programmes provide insufficient protection to poor and vulnerable individuals.
  • Inefficient targeting outcomes are due to community targeting combined with complex targeting criteria, widespread and deep poverty, and the prevalence of local politics.
  • Administrative costs of Malawi's social protection programs are high, especially for PWP and the FISP, which reduces cost-efficiency.
  • Lack of integration of social protection programs and limited exploitation of linkages hinder better coordination and harmonization.
  • The limited coverage reduces the effectiveness of programs, and even though individual programs are found to have positive impacts on livelihoods, little progress has been made in reducing the country's extremely high levels of poverty.

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