Real Numbers: Rational, Irrational, and Ordering

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What does it mean if one number is smaller than another number using the < symbol?

The first number is less than the second number

How are real numbers arranged on the number line?

In ascending order based on their magnitude

Which types of numbers are encompassed by real numbers according to the text?

Natural numbers, integers, fractions, decimals

Number line

What principles do operations with real numbers follow?

Similar to arithmetic with integers

Which of the following best describes irrational numbers?

Arise from square roots and cannot be expressed as terminating fractions

Rational number

Which of the following is an irrational number?

$$\sqrt{3}$$

What is the result of the multiplication of two rational numbers?

Another rational number

Which of the following operations results in a rational number?

$$\frac{3}{4} - \frac{5}{6}$$

If a number is not a natural, integer, or rational number, what could it possibly be?

Irrational number

Real Numbers

Real numbers refer to any decimal representation of quantities such as money, time, length, weight, and temperature, among others. They can be either natural numbers, integers (positive and negative whole numbers), fractions (rational numbers) or decimals (irrational numbers).

Rational Numbers

Rational numbers consist of all possible combinations of natural numbers, positive and negative integers, and their fractions. A fraction is a ratio of two numbers where the denominator is not zero. For example, $$\frac{1}{2}$$ represents the rational number one half.

Operations with Rational Numbers

Operations with rational numbers are similar to those with integers:

1. Addition: a + b, where a and b are rational numbers.
2. Subtraction: a - b.
3. Multiplication: ab, which results in another rational number.
4. Division: a/b, which also results in another rational number.

Irrational Numbers

Irrational numbers cannot be represented exactly as repeating decimals or fractions. Instead, they are represented by non-terminating decimals that never repeat. These numbers arise from square roots, cube roots, or other higher order root functions of integers. Some examples of irrational numbers are:

1. Square root of 2, denoted as √2. It cannot be expressed as a finite decimal or as a terminating fraction.
2. Pi, denoted as π, which is approximately equal to 3.14159265... and continues infinitely without repetition.

Ordering Real Numbers

To compare real numbers, we need to determine whether one number is less than, equal to, or greater than another. If one number is smaller when compared to another using the < symbol, it means the first number is less than the second number.

The number line provides a useful tool for visualizing the relationship between different real numbers. On the number line, real numbers are arranged in ascending order based on their magnitude, meaning that larger numbers are located further along the line.

In summary, real numbers encompass various representations of quantities, including natural numbers, integers, fractions (rational numbers), and decimals (irrational numbers). Operations with real numbers follow principles similar to arithmetic with integers. To understand and compare these numbers, we can use the concept of the number line, which arranges them in ascending order.

Explore the concepts of rational numbers, irrational numbers, and the ordering of real numbers. Learn about operations with rational numbers, the nature of irrational numbers like square root of 2 and pi, and how real numbers are compared and ordered on the number line.

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