Race and Ethnicity Theories

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What is the primary focus of Critical Race Theory?

Challenging traditional notions of race, racism, and power

What is the term coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 to describe the intersection of multiple forms of oppression?

Intersectionality

What is the term used to describe discrimination based on skin tone, particularly within communities of color?

Colorism

What is the primary goal of decolonization in postcolonialism?

To dismantle colonial power structures and ideologies

What is the term used to describe the ways in which race is constructed, represented, and contested in racial formation?

Racial projects

What is the term used to describe the blending of cultures and identities in postcolonial contexts?

Hybridity

Which race paradigm views race as a biological fact, determined by genetic differences between groups?

Biological Race Paradigm

What does the Social Constructivist Race Paradigm emphasize?

The importance of cultural and social differences between groups.

Which paradigm focuses on the ways in which race is used to maintain and perpetuate systems of oppression and power?

Critical Race Theory Paradigm

What is the main criticism of the Post-Racial Race Paradigm?

It ignores the ongoing significance of race in shaping social outcomes and opportunities.

Which race paradigm recognizes the intersection of multiple social categories, such as gender, class, and sexuality, to produce unique experiences of oppression and marginalization?

Intersectional Race Paradigm

What is a key assumption of the Post-Racial Race Paradigm?

That we are moving towards a society where race is no longer important.

Study Notes

Race Paradigms

Critical Race Theory (CRT)

  • Emerged in the 1980s as a response to critical legal studies
  • Challenges traditional notions of race, racism, and power
  • Key concepts:
    • Intersectionality: race is intertwined with other forms of oppression (gender, class, etc.)
    • Interest convergence: racial advances are often tied to interests of dominant group
    • Voicelessness: marginalized groups' experiences are often silenced or ignored
    • Microaggressions: subtle, everyday forms of racism and bias

Intersectionality

  • Coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989
  • Examines how multiple forms of oppression (race, gender, class, sexuality, etc.) intersect and compound
  • Challenges single-axis frameworks that focus on one form of oppression
  • Key concepts:
    • Intersectional invisibility: experiences of marginalized groups are often erased
    • Intersectional erasure: ignoring the specific experiences of marginalized groups

Colorism

  • Refers to discrimination based on skin tone, particularly within communities of color
  • Lighter skin tone is often associated with privilege and social status
  • Key concepts:
    • Color hierarchy: social stratification based on skin tone
    • Internalized oppression: internalizing negative messages about darker skin tone
    • Skin tone bias: prejudice and discrimination based on skin tone

Postcolonialism

  • Emerged in the 1950s and 1960s as a response to colonialism and imperialism
  • Challenges dominant Western narratives and power structures
  • Key concepts:
    • Decolonization: dismantling colonial power structures and ideologies
    • Hybridity: blending of cultures and identities in postcolonial contexts
    • Subalternity: marginalized groups' experiences and voices are often silenced

Racial Formation

  • Coined by Omi and Winant in 1986
  • Examines how race is socially constructed and transformed over time
  • Key concepts:
    • Racial projects: ways in which race is constructed, represented, and contested
    • Racial hegemony: dominant racial ideologies and power structures
    • Racial commonsense: taken-for-granted assumptions about race and racism

Explore key concepts in critical race theory, intersectionality, colorism, postcolonialism, and racial formation. Learn about the social construction of race, power dynamics, and the experiences of marginalized groups.

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