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# Propositional and Predicate Logic Schema Operators Quiz

Created by
@AmusingElegy

### What is the definition of an existential quantifier?

• For some value(s) in the universe, the predicate is true
• For every value in the universe, the predicate is true
• A predicate that is true for all values
• The proposition 'There exists an x in the universe of discourse such that P(x) is true' (correct)
• ### What does the universal quantifier express?

• Existence of all elements satisfying the predicate
• For all values in the universe, the predicate is true (correct)
• For some value(s) in the universe, the predicate is true
• Existence of at least one element satisfying the predicate
• ### How is an existential quantifier symbolized?

• $\exists xP(x) \Leftrightarrow P(n1) \vee P(n2) \vee \ldots \vee P(nk)$
• $\forall xP(x)$
• $\neg \forall xP(x)$
• $\exists xP(x)$ (correct)
• ### What does it mean for a predicate to be satisfiable?

<p>The predicate is true for some, but not necessarily all, choices of values</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which quantifier represents 'for every' in predicate logic?

<p>$\forall$</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In predicate logic, what does $P(x) \lor Q(x)$ represent?

<p>$P(x)$ will be true for some values of $x$ or $Q(x)$ will be true for some values of $x$</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does a valid predicate imply?

<p>The predicate is true whatever values are chosen</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How can a predicate with free variables be assigned a truth value?

<p>By filling the spaces with values or choosing values for variables</p> Signup and view all the answers

### 'There exists an x such that P(x) is true' can be symbolized as:

<p>$\exists xP(x)$</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does 'for every x and for every y, x+y > 10' represent?

<p>The sum of any two elements x and y is greater than 10</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Introduction to Logic

• Logic is the study of reasoning and the validity of arguments, concerned with the truth of statements (propositions) and the nature of truth.
• Formal logic is concerned with the form of arguments and the principles of valid inference.

### Propositional Logic

• Propositional logic is the study of propositions, which are declarative statements that can result in either true or false.
• Propositions may be combined with other propositions using logical connectives to form compound propositions.
• Propositional logic can be used to encode simple arguments expressed in natural language and to determine their validity.

### Propositional Connectives and Truth Tables

• Five propositional connectives, in descending order of operator precedence:
• Truth tables are used to determine whether a propositional statement is true or false for all possible instances of the variable.

### Conjunction and Disjunction

• The conjunction p ^ q is true exactly when p is true and q is true.
• The conjunction p ^ q is false when p is false or q is false or both are false.

### Implication and Equivalence

• The implication p=>q is true in every case except when p is true and q is false.
• The implication p=>q is true if and only if we can prove q by assuming p.

• A negation of a proposition is true when the original proposition is false, and false when the original proposition is true.
• Tautologies are propositions that evaluate to true in every combination of their propositional variables.
• Contradictions are propositions that evaluate to false in every combination of their propositional variables.

### Predicate Logic

• Predicate logic is a richer system than propositional logic, allowing complex facts about the world to be represented.
• Predicate calculus consists of predicates, variables, constants, and quantifiers.

### Predicates

• A predicate is a statement that contains variables (predicate variables), which may be true or false depending on the values of these variables.
• The domain of a predicate variable is the collection of all possible values that the variable may take.

### Quantifiers: Universal and Existential

• The universal quantifier states that a predicate is true for all possible values in the universe of discourse.
• The existential quantifier states that there exists a value in the universe of discourse for which a predicate is true.

### Satisfaction and Validity

• A predicate with free variables or 'spaces' is neither true nor false until values are chosen for these variables or the spaces are filled.
• A predicate that is true for all choices of values is said to be valid.
• A predicate that is true for some, but not necessarily all, choices of values is said to be satisfiable.

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## Description

Test your knowledge on propositional logic including conjunction, disjunction, implication, equivalence, negations, tautology, and contradictions. Explore predicate logic with quantifiers like universal and existential, satisfaction, and validity.

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