Prokaryotic Cells: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
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Prokaryotic Cells: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

Test your knowledge about the characteristics and differences between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, including their shapes, cell walls, and gene structures. Learn about the extreme conditions in which certain bacteria thrive.

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Questions and Answers

What is the main difference in the cell wall structure of Archaebacteria compared to Eubacteria?

More proteinaceous

Which organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Chloroplasts

What is the primary mode of reproduction in Archaebacteria?

Asexual reproduction through binary fission

Which process of cell division is responsible for the production of gametes in eukaryotes?

<p>Meiosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of eukaryotic cells?

<p>Presence of a nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the estimate of the number of microbes compared to human cells in the human body?

<p>10 times more microbes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary component of the cell wall in Eubacteria?

<p>Peptidoglycan</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of the flagella in Eubacteria?

<p>Made of single filament of flagellin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mode of reproduction in Eubacteria?

<p>Asexual reproduction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of the cell membrane in Eubacteria?

<p>Composed of a phospholipid bilayer without cholesterol and steroids</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the shape of the Prokaryotic cells?

<p>Spheroidal, rodlike, and helically coiled</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Pili in Prokaryotic cells?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the cell wall in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

<p>To protect the cell mechanically and chemically from its environment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells?

<p>It is linear and associated with proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the sedimentation coefficient of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells?

<p>80S</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of the cell size in eukaryotic cells?

<p>Larger (10µm - 100µm)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of the organelles in eukaryotic cells?

<p>Many, membrane-bound organelles are present</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the location of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells?

<p>Either floating freely or bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Classification of Cells

  • Eubacteria and Archaebacteria are prokaryotic cells, contrasting in their structural differences in rRNA and plasma membranes.
  • Prokaryotes are least developed but most abundant and widespread organisms.

Prokaryotic Cells

  • Size range: 1-10 μm in diameter.
  • Three basic shapes: spheroidal (cocci), rodlike (bacilli), and helically coiled (spirilla).
  • Cellular components are encapsulated within the cell membrane and rigid cell wall.
  • Mesosomes: membrane may infold to form multilayered structures.
  • Flagella: outside surface, appendages for locomotion.
  • Pili: for DNA transfer during sexual conjunction and attachment to surfaces.
  • Cytoplasm: gel-like, heterogeneous suspension of biomolecules (ribosomes).
  • Chromosome: single copy of DNA (each cell has one chromosome).

Eubacteria as Prokaryotic Cell

  • Lack mitochondria or chloroplasts.
  • Rigid cell wall made of peptidoglycan.
  • Flagella: made of a single filament of the protein flagellin.
  • Cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer that lacks cholesterol and steroids.
  • No mitosis; mostly asexual reproduction.
  • Many form spores, resistant to dehydration and most temperatures, when there is no food and can last up to 50 years.

Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

  • Cell size: prokaryotes are smaller (0.5µm - 10µm), eukaryotes are larger (10µm - 100µm).
  • Cell wall: prokaryotes have murein or peptidoglycan, eukaryotes have cellulose (fungal-chitin).
  • Organelles: prokaryotes have few, no membrane-bound organelles, eukaryotes have many, membrane-bound organelles.
  • Genetic material: prokaryotes have circular DNA molecule lying free in the cytoplasm, eukaryotes have linear DNA and a nucleus.
  • Ribosomes: prokaryotes have smaller, sedimentation coefficient of 70S, eukaryotes have larger, sedimentation coefficient of 80S.

Structures Outside the Cell Membrane

  • Cell wall: protects the cell mechanically and chemically from its environment, an additional layer of protection to the cell membrane.

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