Professional Policing and Ethics

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52 Questions

When and where was the first organized police force formed in the United States of America?

Boston in 1838

What is Comp Stat?

An information database system for police to use

Who is considered the father of modern policing?

Sir Robert Peel

When do Implicit Bias tend to show?

B and C

What does the “Occupations Code” give the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement (T-COLE) the authority to do?

Establish rules that law enforcement agencies and officers must follow

When was Comp Stat put into use by police?

1990's

What did Brady versus Maryland make the duty of law enforcement?

To provide material evidence to the defense that could alter the results of the trial

Who developed the modern day policing principles?

August Vollmer

When, where, and by whom was Crime Stoppers established?

July 1976, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Mac Aleese

What are the components of Ethical Behavior?

Moral Sensitivity, Moral Judgement, Moral Motivation, Moral Character

What are the different attitude stages an officer goes through during their career that can motivate either ethical or unethical behavior?

Idealistic, Frustrated, Defiant, Resigned, Aware, Decisive, Commitment

What are some areas that bias often come into play?

Race or Ethnicity, Behavior, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Religion

What are the characteristics of the Traditional Police Service Model?

Reactive response, incident driven, lacks community involvement, uses aggregate statistics for performance measurement

What are the principles of Procedural Justice?

Give people a voice, neutrality, respectful treatment, trustworthiness

What does U.S.C. 241 and 242 cover?

Conspiracy Against Rights and Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law

Two of more persons conspiring to oppress any inhabitant of any state from the free exercise of their rights. Is the definition of what?

Conspiracy Against Rights

Which is not a component of the Ethical Decision Making Model?

Does it meet your organizations operating standards?

What does the term 'Implicit Bias' refer to?

Automatic associations between groups of people and stereotypes

What is the Brady list used for in law enforcement?

Tracking police misconduct and public complaints

Which is not a historical development of police service models or styles from the 1950's through the 1970's?

Police closed the distance with citizens and developed positive relationships with the public.

What are the values of providing quality police customer service?

It builds pride within an agency along with loyal support from the community.

When did Crime Stoppers come to Texas?

In 1981.

How is Crime Stoppers funded?

Non taxpayer dollars

Texas's 67th Legislature passed a House Bill creating Texas's Crime Stoppers Council within which part of the Government?

Criminal Justice Division of the Governor's Office

What are the examples of Moral Courage?

Refusing gratuities and duty to intervene

What is the purpose of a police organization?

All of the above

What is 'Police Legitimacy'?

The communities' view of whether police have acted legally and lawfully

What is the historical significance of August Vollmer and J. Edgar Hoover in American policing?

They led the reform era in American policing

What are some characteristics of Police Subculture social problems?

Stress, Cynicism, and Alienation

What is objective behavior?

Expression of facts without distortion by personal feelings or prejudices

Which is not on of the three levels of Intervention?

Basic

Which was not a result of the use of Comp Stat?

It improved community relations

Making ethical decisions like turning down bribes is an example of what?

Moral Courage

Which is not a characteristic of the Police Subculture?

Transparency and Openness

What is the definition of physical courage?

The ability to face danger and physically act when someone is in harm's way

Which is not a civil penalty for sexual harassment and inappropriate officer conduct?

Texas Commission on Sexual Rights

Which is a historical development related to police service models or styles from 1900 to the 1940s?

All of the above

Define 'Community Policing' and its service model.

Police officers and citizens working together to solve community problems

Who do police officers work for and to whom are they responsible?

The citizens of the community which employs the officers

Which is not a pillar of procedural justice?

Loyalty and Reason

Which is not an advantage of the professional model for law enforcement?

More engagement from the public

Which is not one of the stated ways relationships are cultivated through procedural justice and community policing?

Transparency

What is the description of the 'Ethical Role'?

The ethical role is performed by being: Objective, Impartial, Neutral, and Ethical in personal behavior

What are some of the 'Pillars of Character' in relation to the ethical role?

All the Above

Which is not a Pillar of Character?

Commitment

Which are not motivations for ethical behavior?

Financial Benefit

What are some obstacles to ethical behavior?

Pursuit of Happiness

The state or quality of mind or spirt that enables one to face danger. Is the definition of what?

Courage

What is a disadvantage of the professional model for law enforcement?

Cost of training and development

What can unethical conduct by peace officers result in?

Federal prosecution ran by the FBI out of Washington DC

Peace officers on requests may refer someone to a private attorney or bail bondsmen.

False

How many Fire fighters and law enforcement officers died on 9/11 ?

71 Law Enforcement Officers and 343 Fire Fighters

Study Notes

  • Components of Ethical Behavior: 1. Moral Sensitivity: ability to recognize and understand situations that require ethical decision-making. 2. Moral Judgement: ability to evaluate situations and make sound ethical decisions. 3. Moral Motivation: internal drive to act ethically. 4. Moral Character: set of values that guides decision-making.

  • Ethical Decision Making Model: 1. Legal: is it allowed by law? 2. Code of Conduct: is it permitted by professional guidelines? 3. Code of Ethics: how would it be viewed by ethical principles? 4. Personal Code: does it align with personal values? 5. Ethical Dilemma: is it a true ethical dilemma? 6. Organization: how does it apply to organizational ethics?

  • Officer's Career Stages: 1. Idealistic: ethical behavior driven by ideals and personal values. 2. Frustrated: ethical behavior challenged by frustration. 3. Defiant: ethical behavior ignored in favor of personal gain. 4. Resigned: ethical behavior accepted as a necessary sacrifice. 5. Aware: ethical behavior informed by knowledge. 6. Decisive: ethical behavior based on clear decision-making. 7. Commitment: ethical behavior sustained through commitment.

  • Objective Behavior: expression of facts without personal feelings or prejudices.

  • Implicit Bias: automatic associations between groups and stereotypes.

  • Areas of Bias: 1. Race/Ethnicity 2. Behavior 3. Gender 4. Sexual Orientation 5. Religion

  • Differences between Physical and Moral Courage: 1. Physical: physical action in dangerous situations. 2. Moral: ethical decision-making in challenging situations.

  • Examples of Physical and Moral Courage: 1. Physical: facing armed suspects, duty to intervene. 2. Moral: refusing bribes, refusing to participate in cover-ups.

  • Texas Penal Code and Officer Behavior: 1. Chapter 36: Bribery and Corrupt Influence. 2. Chapter 37: Perjury and Other Falsifications. 3. Chapter 39: Abuse of Office.

  • Federal Criminal Law and Officer Behavior: 1. Conspiracy Against Rights 2. Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law.

  • Civil Penalties for Sexual Harassment and Inappropriate Officer Conduct: 1. USC A 19 83 2. Sexual Harassment – Penal Code 39.03. 3. Texas Commission on Human Rights. 4. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

  • Historical Development of Policing: 1. 1900-1940s: use of automobiles, radios, and reforms. 2. 1950s-1970s: technology improvement, faster response, and community distancing.

  • Traditional Police Service Model: reactive response, incident driven, lacks community involvement.

  • Community Policing: citizens and officers working together to solve community problems, greater community voice in decision making.

  • Purpose of a Police Organization: fighting crime, serving and protecting, promoting public safety.

  • Police Legitimacy: community view of police acting legally and lawfully.

  • Four Principles of Procedural Justice: giving people a voice, neutrality, respectful treatment, trustworthiness.

  • Values of Quality Police Customer Service: building pride in the agency, loyal community support.

  • Police Subculture: characteristics include curiosity, solidarity, secrecy, conservatism, cynicism, and social isolation.

  • Police Subculture Social Problems: stress, commitment to community, cynicism and alienation, the "Dirty Harry Problem".

  • Comp Stat Information System: not effective in the 1990s, led to over policing.

  • Brady List: database of police misconduct and public complaints.

  • Levels of Intervention: advanced, delayed, immediate.

  • The Ethical Decision Making Model: Is it legal, permitted by code of conduct, viewed favorably by Code of Ethics, approved by personal code of ethics, a true ethical dilemma, and applicable for organizations.

  • Objective Behavior: Expression of facts without distortion by personal feelings or prejudices (Neutrality).

  • Implicit Bias: Automatic associations between groups of people and stereotypes.

  • Physical and Moral Courage: State or quality of mind or spirit enabling one to face danger; Physical - facing danger, intervening duty; Moral - refusing gratuities, cover ups, and interventions.

  • Title 8 of the Texas Penal Code: Covers Bribery and Corrupt Influence (Chapters 36, 37, and 39), potential federal prosecution for unethical conduct by peace officers.

  • U.S.C. 241 and 242: Conspiracy Against Rights and Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law.

  • Civil Penalties for Sexual Harassment and Inappropriate Officer Conduct: U.S.C. A 1983, Penal Code 39.03, Texas Commission on Human Rights, and EEOC.

  • Historical Development of Police Service Models: 1900s to 1940s (use of automobiles, radios, rapid response, and "reform era"), 1950s to 1970s (technology improvement, faster paced service, and "community policing" era).

  • Traditional Police Service Model: Reactive response, incident driven, lacks community involvement, and uses statistics to measure performance.

  • Community Policing Model: Officers and citizens work together to solve community problems, allowing citizens a greater voice in setting priorities.

  • Purpose of Police Organization: To fight crime, serve and protect, and promote public safety.

  • Police Legitimacy: Community's view of whether police have acted legally and lawfully.

  • Principles of Procedural Justice: Give people a voice (listen), neutrality (be fair), respectful treatment, and trustworthiness (explain yourself).

  • Values of Quality Police Customer Service: Builds pride and community support, and increases trust and legitimacy.

  • Police Subculture Characteristics: Curiosity and suspiciousness, solidarity, secrecy, political and social conservatism, cynicism, social isolation, and authoritarian approach to control.

  • Police Subculture Social Problems: Stress, commitment to community, cynicism and alienation, and the "Dirty Harry Problem" (end justifies the means).

  • Comp Stat Information System: Used in the 1990s, led to over policing.

  • The Brady List: A database of police misconduct, public complaints, and use of force.

  • Levels of Intervention: Advanced (prevention), delayed (intervention), and immediate (reaction).

  • Police Officer Duties on 9/11: 343 Firefighters and 71 Law Enforcement Officers died.

  • Crime Stoppers in Texas: Established in 1981.

  • Moral and Physical Courage: State or quality of mind or spirit enabling one to face danger; Moral - refusing gratuities, cover ups, and interventions; Physical - facing danger, intervening duty.

  • The Ethical Decision Making Model: 1. Is it legal, 2. Is it permitted by code of conduct, 3. How would it be viewed by Code of Ethics, 4. Does personal code of ethics approve, 5. Is it an ethical dilemma, 6. Can it be applied to an organization.

  • Objective Behavior: Expression of facts without distortion by personal feelings or prejudices.

  • Implicit Bias: Automatic associations people make between groups of people and stereotypes.

  • Physical and Moral Courage: 1. Physical: facing danger, 2. Moral: making ethical decisions, 1. Physical: facing barricaded or armed suspects, 2. Moral: refusing bribes, 3. Moral: refusing to participate in cover ups, 4. Duty to intervene.

  • Texas Penal Code: 1. Bribery and Corrupt Influence (Chapter 36), 2. Perjury and Other Falsifications (Chapter 37), 3. Abuse of Office (Chapter 39).

  • Federal criminal law: Unethical conduct by peace officers can result in federal prosecution.

  • Civil penalties: 1. USC A 19 83 Violation of Civil Rights, 2. Sexual Harassment (Penal Code 39.03), 3. Texas Commission on Human Rights, 4. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

  • Historical development of police service models: 1. Use of automobiles and radios, 2. Use of technology (computers), 3. Reform era, 4. Creation of the FBI, 5. Improved communications, 6. Desire for higher education, 7. Loss of positive relationships with the public.

  • Community Policing: Officers and citizens working together to solve community problems, allowing citizens a greater voice in setting local police priorities.

  • Police organization: Fight crime, serve and protect, promote public safety.

  • Police Legitimacy: Community view of police actions as legal and lawful.

  • Values of providing quality police customer service: Builds pride, community support.

  • Police Subculture: Curiosity and Suspiciousness, Solidarity, Secrecy, Political and Social conservatism, Cynicism, Social Isolation, Authoritarian approach, Support.

  • Police Subculture social problems: Stress, commitment to community, cynicism and alienation, Dirty Harry Problem.

  • Comp Stat information system: Used in the 1990's, led to over policing.

  • Brady list: A database of police misconduct, public complaints, use of force, etc.

  • Results of Comp Stat: Led to over policing.

  • Intervention levels: Advanced, Delayed, Immediate.

  • September 11: 343 Fire fighters died, 71 Law Enforcement Officers died.

  • Police officer referrals: Cannot refer someone to a private attorney or bail bondsmen.

  • Crime Stoppers: Came to Texas in 1981, funded with non-taxpayer dollars.

  • Definition of Courage: State or quality of mind or sprit that enables one to face danger.

Test your knowledge of procedural justice and law enforcement models with this quiz. Find out how well you understand the pillars of procedural justice and the advantages of the professional model for law enforcement.

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