Primary and Secondary Sources in History

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Who among the following explorers discovered the Americas?

Christopher Columbus

Which system of production could not meet the growing demands of the market during the Industrial Revolution?

Domestic system

When did the factory system of production develop?

Eighteenth century

What marked a radical change from the domestic system of production?

Mechanization of labour

Which explorer reached the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488?

Bartholomew Diaz

Who was the first sailor to sail around the world?

Ferdinand Magellan

Which of the following is considered a primary source?

Government reports

Who creates secondary sources?


What is the literal meaning of the word 'Renaissance'?


In which country did the Renaissance movement begin?


Which field was NOT influenced by the Renaissance?


Which Renaissance thinker is known for asking people to judge things in the light of reason?

Renaissance thinkers in general

Who among the following is NOT listed as a Renaissance person?

Galileo Galilei

What characterizes the modern period?

Greater interaction among countries

What was the central theme of study during the Renaissance?

Human form and secular themes

Which figure was NOT mentioned as a representative of the true spirit of the Renaissance?

Martin Luther

What was the primary objective of the Reformation movement in Europe?

To question and oppose the practices of the Roman Catholic Church

Who led the Protestant Reformation in Germany?

Martin Luther

In which country did Henry VIII lead the Protestant movement?


What was the reason for the race among European countries to discover new trade routes to Asia?

Constantinople was conquered by Ottoman Turks, blocking the overland route

Which reformers were associated with the Protestant movement in Switzerland?

John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli

What was one of the main criticisms by the Protestants against the Roman Catholic Church?

The Church was too wealthy, powerful, and corrupt

What primary natural resources did England have in abundance that were crucial for industrialization?

Coal and iron

What was one major effect of the abolition of serfdom in the 18th century in England?

The rise of urbanization

How did the British government’s strong navy contribute to industrialization?

By supporting geographical expansion and colonization

Which invention is attributed to George Stephenson during the Industrial Revolution?

The steam-powered locomotive

What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on social structures in Europe?

It led to the birth of capitalism

Which industry was the first to be mechanized during the Industrial Revolution?

The textile industry

What was one of the uses of the steam engine invented by James Watt?

To power textile machines

Which of the following was NOT a major invention during the Industrial Revolution?

The telegram

What was the main reason for the ruin of the traditional textile industry in India?

Competition from machine-made goods

Which countries were the main colonial powers controlling the non-industrialized world?

Britain, France, Belgium, and Spain

Who were the individuals known for destroying machines during the Industrial Revolution?


How did the British Imperialism modify agriculture in their colonies?

By focusing on monoculture and cash crops

What were Indian cities such as Murshidabad, Dacca, Surat, Lucknow, and Masulipatnam known for?

Centers of the textile industry

Which of the following is NOT a feature of the Renaissance period?

Focus on religious dogma

What led to large-scale de-urbanization in India during the Industrial Revolution?

Decline in the textile industry

Which instrument is used to find one's direction at sea?


Which country experienced severe exploitation of its natural resources by the British, as discussed in the text?

Burma (Myanmar)

Which philosophy emphasizes that all behavior should be based on reason, not emotions or religious beliefs?


What was a significant effect of the Industrial Revolution on society?

Emergence of new social classes

Why did European countries seek to acquire colonies during the 19th century?

To secure cheap raw materials and new markets for goods

Who were the capitalists during the Industrial Revolution?

Factory owners controlling capital

How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to imperialism?

By increasing the production of goods, which required new markets and raw materials

What problem did political domination of less-developed countries solve for European countries?

Securing markets and raw materials

What was the main motivation for European countries to invest their surplus capital in colonies?

To support industrial expansion

By when was almost the entire world divided among the colonial powers?

The early 20th century

What imagery is used to describe the city during the Industrial Revolution?

A canal with a boat and tall factory buildings surrounded by a dense forest

Which period of history began with the eighteenth century in India?

Modern period

Which period of history in Europe began from the sixteenth century?

Modern period

Which feature is NOT associated with the modern age?


Which concept emphasizes the importance of reasoning in the modern age?


What does humanism signify in the modern age?

The human being is the center of the world

Which of the following is a primary source material for the modern period in India?

Contemporary letters

Which feature contributes to the development of cities in the modern age?


When did the change from the medieval to the modern period generally begin in Europe?

16th century

Study Notes

Primary and Secondary Sources

  • Primary sources include original documents, such as letters, government reports, autobiographies, newsreels, newspapers, speeches, audio recordings, video recordings, photographs, sculptures, and paintings, as well as archaeological remains.
  • Many primary sources are preserved in archives and museums.
  • Historians study primary sources and interpret them, creating secondary sources.

Modern Europe

  • The modern period is characterized by greater interaction among countries worldwide.
  • India was influenced by these developments, making it important to understand what happened in other parts of the world during this period.

The Renaissance

  • The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned from the 14th to the 17th century.
  • It began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe.
  • The movement aimed to revive classical glory, learning, and culture of ancient Greece and Rome.
  • Art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and science of this period were influenced by the Renaissance.
  • Renaissance thinkers were rationalists, asking people to question beliefs founded on blind faith and superstition.

Key Figures of the Renaissance

  • Michelangelo Buonarroti
  • Nicolaus Copernicus
  • Isaac Newton
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • William Shakespeare

The Industrial Revolution

  • The Industrial Revolution began in England in the mid-18th century.
  • England had an abundant supply of natural resources, a stable government, and a large number of people moving to cities, providing cheap labor.
  • The British government's strong navy led to geographical expansion and colonization, giving England access to cheap raw materials and markets.
  • An atmosphere of scientific inquiry and an improved transport system helped England become the first industrialized nation.

Major Inventions

  • The textile industry was the first to be mechanized, with inventions like the spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule, power loom, and flying shuttle.
  • The steam engine by James Watt replaced water and horse power in many industries.
  • The steam-powered locomotive by George Stephenson helped in the transport of raw materials.
  • A mechanical seeder and horse hoe improved agricultural productivity.
  • Better coal mining techniques also developed during this era.

Impact of the Industrial Revolution

  • The Industrial Revolution led to sweeping changes in Europe and elsewhere.
  • Industrialization led to the decline of feudalism and the rise of capitalism.
  • The domestic system of production was replaced by the factory system.


  • Vasco da Gama
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Amerigo Vespucci

Learn about the difference between primary and secondary sources in historical research, including examples of each and their roles in the study of history.

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