Pre-Spanish Era in Philippine History

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What was the government called during the pre-Spanish era in the Philippines?


Who headed the Barangay during the pre-Spanish era?

The Datu/Raja

How was the succession of leadership determined in the Barangay during the pre-Spanish era?

The eldest son of the Datu would succeed him, or the strongest in the tribe if there was no son.

What were the two strategies used by the Spaniards to conquer the Philippines?

Reduction and psychological control

Which of the following was NOT a form of resistance against Spanish colonial rule mentioned in the text?

The Katipunan revolution

What were the two factors that contributed to the development of the concept of the Filipino identity?

The opening of the Philippines to world trade and the rise of the middle class

Study Notes

Pre-Spanish Era

  • The government was called Barangay, headed by the Datu/Raja, considered the king of the barangay.
  • Barangay was considered a kingdom or country, with no national government.
  • The Datu's eldest son succeeded him, or the strongest in their tribe or barangay if there was no son.

Social Classes

  • Nobles: highest social class
  • Freemen: second social class
  • Slaves: lowest social class

Spanish Colonial Rule/Experience

  • Lasted for 333 years
  • 2 strategies used by the Spanish to conquer the Philippines:
    • Physical Control: forced small communities to form larger ones for control and proselytization (reduction)
    • Psychological Control: manipulation

Forms of Resistance

  • Nativism: revolt against the Spanish through fighting with one's own faith
  • The Growth of Local Clergy: revolt of local Filipino priests for equal rights (GOMBURZA)

Elite Participation in the People's Protest

  • Inconsistent pattern of elite participation in protests against Spanish oppression
  • Some elites did not support their own country for selfish gains

Development of the Filipino Concept

  • Opening of the Philippines to international trade
  • Rise of the middle class, leading to the development of the concept of the Filipino

Test your knowledge on the Pre-Spanish Era in Philippine history, focusing on the government structure and leadership during that time. Learn about the roles of the Datu/Raja and the organization of Barangays as kingdoms or countries.

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