Practical Research Methodology

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12 Questions

What is the first step in any research project?

Choosing a research question

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good research question?


What is an important consideration when creating a questionnaire for a survey?

Ensuring questions relate to the research question

In practical research, what does collecting data involve?

Observation, interview, survey, experiment, and other means

Which of the following is NOT a method for conducting surveys?

Through social media only

What should be avoided when designing a survey questionnaire?

Including leading questions

What is a key aspect of conducting interviews in qualitative research?

Creating a comfortable environment

What technique is used in a literature review to identify gaps in knowledge?


What is the first stage involved in writing a literature review?


Which method involves communication between the researcher and the participant?


What software can be used to analyze interview data?

Thematic analysis software

In research investigating caffeine effects, what could be a potential question for an interview?

How does caffeine affect your work performance?

Study Notes

Practical Research 1

Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It involves collecting data through observation, interview, survey, experiment, and other means. This guide will focus on practical aspects of research methodology, including choosing a research question, designing a survey, writing a literature review, conducting interviews, and analyzing results.

Choosing a Research Question

The first step in any research project is selecting a research question that can be answered with evidence from existing sources. A good research question should be specific, relevant, feasible, and clear. For example, if you wanted to investigate whether people prefer coffee over tea, your research question could be: "What is the preference of the local population between coffee and tea?"

Designing a Survey

Designing a survey involves several steps, including deciding on the sample size, creating a questionnaire, determining response methods, and estimating costs. Surveys can be conducted online, by mail, or in person. When creating a questionnaire, it's important to keep questions simple, avoid leading questions, and ensure they relate directly to the research question.

For instance, if you were investigating the effects of caffeine on productivity, your survey might contain questions like: "How many cups of coffee do you drink per day?", "Do you believe caffeine improves your work performance?", and "Have you experienced negative side effects from caffeine consumption?"

Writing a Literature Review

A literature review is a comprehensive summary and evaluation of all the published scholarly works related to the topic under investigation. Writing a literature review typically involves four stages: planning, organizing, drafting, and revising. During each stage, critical appraisal techniques such as summarization, synthesis, classification, and evaluation are used to identify gaps in knowledge and highlight areas requiring further investigation.

In our previous example, a literature review would involve gathering information from various studies relating to productivity, caffeine consumption, and their correlation. The review would then analyze these sources, providing an overview of the current state of knowledge in this area and highlighting any discrepancies or gaps in the existing literature.

Conducting Interviews

Interviews are a qualitative research method that involves face-to-face or telephone communication between the researcher and the participant. Preparation for an interview includes choosing participants, creating a schedule, and developing a set of interview questions. During the interview, the researcher should create a comfortable environment, ask open-ended questions, and encourage the participant to provide detailed responses.

For example, if you were investigating the relationship between exercise and mental health, you might interview individuals who regularly engage in exercise and ask questions about their motivation, fitness routine, and perceived mental health benefits.

Analyzing Results

After collecting data, the next step is to analyze the results. This involves organizing, summarizing, and presenting the findings in a clear and concise manner. Statistical software can be used to analyze survey data and identify trends or patterns. In the case of interview data, thematic analysis can be employed to identify key themes and interpret the meanings behind the responses.

In our example, you might use statistical software to analyze the responses to your survey questions regarding caffeine consumption and productivity. You would then interpret the results, drawing conclusions about the relationship between caffeine and productivity based on the data.

In conclusion, practical research is a crucial aspect of the scientific process. By following these steps, you can design a research project, collect and analyze data, and draw meaningful conclusions that contribute to the overall body of knowledge in your field.

Explore the practical aspects of research methodology including choosing a research question, designing surveys, writing literature reviews, conducting interviews, and analyzing results. Learn about key steps involved in conducting scientific research.

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