Practical Aspects of Image Classification with CNNs

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30 Questions

What is the primary goal of normalization techniques in training a neural network?

To transform features to be on a similar scale

Which of the following is a type of regularization technique?

Early stopping

What is the purpose of scaling to a range in min-max scaling?

To transform features to be on a similar scale

What is a limitation of Logistic Regression and Softmax Regression in image classification?

They are only suitable for linearly separable data

What is the effect of regularization on a learning algorithm?

It increases the training error but reduces the generalization error

What is a disadvantage of using fully connected neural networks for image classification?

They lose spatial information between pixels

Why are Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) more suitable for image classification than Fully Connected Neural Networks (FCNs)?

CNNs consider spatial information between pixels

What is the benefit of normalization on the training process?

It makes the training process smoother

What is a challenge of extracting features from images using only pixel values?

The resulting dataset is too high-dimensional

What is the definition of regularization in the context of machine learning?

Any modification to a learning algorithm to reduce its generalization error but not its training error

What is a problem with using Fully Connected Neural Networks for image classification with high-resolution images?

The number of parameters will be too large

Why are Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines not suitable for image classification tasks?

They are not suitable for unstructured datasets

What is the primary benefit of the Inception Module in CNNs?

Ability to use multiple types of filter sizes in a single image block

How many parameters does the Google LeNet have?

4M parameters

What is the characteristic of the VGG Net architecture?

Homogeneous architecture with only 33 convolutions and 22 pooling

Who proposed the Google LeNet?

Szegedy et al. from Google

What is the main advantage of Google LeNet over AlexNet?

Fewer parameters

What is the main difference between the Inception Module and a traditional CNN block?

Inception Module uses multiple filter sizes

What is the primary characteristic of training deep neural networks?

It is an art that depends on multiple trial runs and patience

What is the purpose of extracting features from an intermediate layer of VGG19?

To extract specific features from the input data

Why is it important to verify the quality of data?

To ensure that the model is trained on reliable data

What is the benefit of starting with a small and less complex model?

It allows for gradual improvement of the model

What is the suggested approach to improving the model?

Start with a small and less complex model and then improve it

What is the purpose of batch normalization and other normalization techniques?

To normalize the input data

What is the primary purpose of introducing an additional 1×1 convolutional layer in a neural network?

To transform the input into the desired shape for the addition operation

What is the main advantage of using transfer learning in deep neural networks?

It enables the reuse of pre-trained models, reducing the need for manual annotation

What is the typical dataset used for training the base model in transfer learning?


What is the primary modification made to the base model during the transfer learning process?

Adding a new decision layer compatible with the problem in hand

What is the main benefit of using pre-trained models in transfer learning?

They provide a cheaper and faster way of adapting a neural network

What is the primary goal of transfer learning in deep neural networks?

To improve the learning of a new task through the transfer of knowledge from a related task

Study Notes


  • Normalization is essential before training a neural network to bring the input data to a manageable scale.
  • Techniques of normalization include:
    • Scaling to a range (min-max scaling)
    • z-score (standard normal distribution)

Avoiding Overfitting

  • Overfitting can be avoided by using regularization techniques
  • Definition of regularization: "any modification to a learning algorithm to reduce its generalization error but not its training error"
  • Examples of regularization techniques:
    • Early Stopping

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs)

  • CNNs are a special case of fully connected neural networks with more layers and deeper architecture.
  • CNNs are suitable for image classification tasks.
  • Examples of CNN architectures:
    • LeNet
    • Google LeNet (ILSVRC 2014 winner)
    • Inception Module

Inception Module

  • Inception Module is an image model block that approximates an optimal local sparse structure in a CNN.
  • It allows using multiple types of filter sizes in a single image block.

Google LeNet

  • Introduces the concept of Inception Module
  • Dramatically reduces the number of parameters (from 60M to 4M)


  • Runner-up in ILSVRC 2014
  • Homogeneous architecture with only 3x3 convolutions and 2x2 pooling
  • Has 140M parameters, most of which are in the fully connected layer

Pre-trained Models

  • Keras provides pre-trained models such as VGG19 and InceptionV3
  • Pre-trained models can be used for:
    • Classification with base classes (Imagenet classes)
    • Extracting features from an intermediate layer
    • Fine-tuning on a new set of classes

Training Deeper Neural Networks

  • Training deeper neural networks is more of an art and requires patience.
  • Suggestions for training deeper neural networks:
    • Understand the data
    • Verify the quality of data
    • Start with a small and less complex model
    • Improve the model iteratively

Batch Normalizations and Other Techniques

  • Batch normalizations and other normalization techniques can be used to improve training stability
  • Gradient Descent with Momentum, RMS Prop, etc. can be used for optimization

Explore the challenges of image classification with non-linear decision boundaries and learn how to improve model performance using logistic regression and softmax regression. This quiz covers the training of deeper neural networks and fully connected layers.

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