## Questions and Answers

What does 'K - N' represent in the context of population growth?

The number of individuals that may be added to the population at a given time

How does 'K - N' relate to the logistic growth equation?

It restricts the exponential growth model to generate the logistic growth equation

In what scenario would the growth rate be close to exponential according to the text?

When 'N' is close to zero

What is a characteristic of density-dependent factors in regulating population growth?

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Why do wildlife biologists want to understand density-dependent and density-independent factors?

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What happens when the population size reaches the carrying capacity 'K'?

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What is the formula for calculating population growth rate, r, in a population?

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What does a positive value of r indicate in terms of population growth?

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What is the condition known as when the population size is unchanging?

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Why does exponential growth not continue indefinitely in real-world populations?

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What type of growth curve represents the logistic growth model in population ecology?

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How does the logistic growth curve differ from the exponential growth curve?

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What is the main reason for diseases spreading rapidly among the members of a population?

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Why did the great famine in China during the 'Great Leap Forward' partially occur?

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In population ecology, what is true about density-dependent factors?

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How does low prey density affect the mortality of predators according to the text?

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What happens to the reproductive rates of species as their populations reach carrying capacity?

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Which statement best describes density-independent factors in population regulation?

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## Study Notes

### Population Growth

- Population growth rate is determined by subtracting the death rate (D) from the birth rate (B) and adjusting for migration (if applicable)
- The growth rate can be expressed as: Population growth = rN, where r = ([B - D] + [I - E])
- The value of r can be positive (increasing population), negative (decreasing population), or zero (zero population growth)

### Logistic Growth

- Exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely due to limited resources
- The logistic growth model represents the reality of limited resources with an S-shaped growth curve
- The logistic growth equation is: Population growth rate = rN [K-N]/K
- The equation takes into account the carrying capacity (K) and the available space for further growth

### Population Growth Regulation

- Population growth is regulated by two types of factors: density-dependent and density-independent
- Density-dependent factors affect growth rate and mortality based on population density, and are largely biological in nature
- Examples of density-dependent factors include:
- Parasitism
- Predation
- Inter- and intraspecific competition
- Disease spread
- Low prey density affecting predator mortality
- Competition for declining resources

- Density-independent factors cause mortality regardless of population density, and are typically physical in nature
- Examples of density-independent factors include:
- Weather
- Natural disasters
- Pollution

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## Description

Learn about how the growth rate of a population is determined by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate, with the possibility of including migration. Explore the equation that combines birth and death rates to calculate the growth rate.