Physics Chapter 1: Electric Charge and Fields
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Physics Chapter 1: Electric Charge and Fields

This quiz covers the basics of electrostatics, electric charge, and electric fields. Topics include static charges, forces, fields, and potentials.

Created by
@EvocativeEclipse

Questions and Answers

What is the fundamental law of electrostatics?

Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other

What is the SI unit of electric charge?

Coulomb

What type of matter allows electric charges to flow easily?

Conductor

What is the basic unit of charge denoted by?

<p>e</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to charges on the surface of a conductor when it is given some charge?

<p>The charges are distributed uniformly on the surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process of transferring electrons from one substance to another by rubbing called?

<p>Triboelectrification</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the charge Q on a body always given by?

<p>Q=ne</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of material behaves as an insulator at low temperature and as a conductor at high temperature?

<p>Semiconductor</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Coulomb's law, what is the force between two charges proportional to?

<p>Product of two charges and reciprocal of square of distance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to charges on the surface of an insulator when it is given some charge?

<p>The charges remain at the same point</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the value of the basic unit of charge e?

<p>1.6 x 10-19 C</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the type of charge that is associated with a lack of electrons in a matter?

<p>Positive charge</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the relationship between the force and distance between two charges?

<p>Force is inversely proportional to square of distance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the constant of proportionality in Coulomb's law?

<p>k</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the total charge of an electric dipole?

<p>Zero</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the direction of the electric field at a point on the axis of an electric dipole?

<p>Parallel to the axis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of electric field lines between two unlike charges?

<p>They are compressed</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the direction of electric field lines emerging from a positive charge?

<p>Radially outward</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens when two electric field lines intersect?

<p>It is not possible for two electric field lines to intersect</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the midpoint of the location of –q and q in an electric dipole called?

<p>The centre of the dipole</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the property of electric field lines that states they do not form a closed loop?

<p>Electric field lines do not form a closed loop</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of electric field lines between two like charges?

<p>They are expanded</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Electrostatics

  • Deals with the study of forces, fields, and potentials arising from static charges.

Electric Charge

  • A property associated with matter that produces and experiences electric and magnetic effects.
  • There are two types of charges:
    • Positive charge: Lack of electrons in a matter.
    • Negative charge: Excess of electrons in a matter.

Types of Matter

  • Classified into three types based on the flow of charges:
    • Conductors: Substances that allow electric charges to flow easily (e.g., iron, aluminum, copper, silver).
    • Insulators: Substances that do not allow electric charges to flow (e.g., plastic, wood).
    • Semiconductors: Substances that behave as insulators at low temperatures and conductors at high temperatures (e.g., germanium, silicon).

Charging Methods

  • Rubbing method: Friction between two substances can transfer electrons, resulting in charging.

Electric Field

  • A vector quantity that varies from one point to another in space.
  • Determined by the positions of the source charges.
  • Electric field lines:
    • Imaginary and continuous lines that start from positive charges and end at negative charges.
    • Represent the direction of electric field at a point.
    • Density of electric field lines indicates the magnitude of the electric field.
    • For a point charge, electric field lines move radially outward or inward depending on the nature of the charge.

Electric Dipole

  • A pair of equal and opposite charges (+q and -q) separated by a distance 2a.
  • The midpoint of the location of -q and q is called the center of the dipole.
  • The total charge of an electric dipole is zero.

Quantisation of Charges

  • All free charges are integral multiples of a basic unit of charge (e = 1.6 x 10^-19 C).
  • Charge Q on a body is given by Q = ne, where n is an integer number.

Coulomb's Law

  • The force between two charges q1 and q2 is:
    • Directly proportional to the product of the two charges (F ∝ q1 x q2).
    • Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges (F ∝ 1/r^2).
    • The constant of proportionality is Coulomb's constant (k).

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