Philippine National Hero Rizal's Education at Ateneo

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What was Rizal's first impression of Barcelona?


What was the name of the ship Rizal boarded from Singapore to Europe?


When did Rizal finally reach Barcelona?

June 16, 1882

What was the first piece ever to be published of Rizal?

El Amor Patrio

Why was Rizal's article Revista De Madrid returned to him?

Diariong Tagalog had ceased publications for lack of funds

What were the subjects included in the entrance examination to enter the Ateneo?

Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic.

What historical places did Rizal visit in Singapore?

Botanical garden, art galleries, and park

Why was the college that began to function in 1865 called the Ateneo Municipal?

The Jesuits had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies, so the college was named Ateneo Municipal.

Why did Jose adopt the surname 'Rizal' instead of using 'Mercado'?

The Mercado surname had come under suspicion of the authorities, so Jose adopted the second surname, Rizal.

Where did Jose go before returning to Manila to study at the Ateneo?

Jose returned to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint.

What was the power restriction imposed on the Jesuits when they returned to the Philippines?

They had limited power to administer parishes except in the remote regions of Mindanao.

When did Jose's father decide to send him to the Ateneo?

After returning to his town to celebrate the fiesta, Jose's father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo.

Who inspired Rizal to write poetry and study harder during his fourth year in Ateneo?

Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez

When did Rizal graduate from Ateneo and what degree did he receive?

March 23, 1877; Bachelor of Arts

Where did Rizal first meet Segunda Katigbak?

At the house of Rizal's grandmother in Trozo, Manila (now known as Tutuban)

How did Rizal regard the Jesuit professor Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez?

As a model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for his students' advancement

What degree did Rizal receive upon graduating from Ateneo, and was he a valedictorian?

Bachelor of Arts; Not a valedictorian

At what age did Rizal graduate from Ateneo?

16 years old

Describe the Jesuitical system of instruction in comparison to other colleges at that time.

The Jesuitical system was considered more advanced than other colleges, with less mechanical methods, physical culture, and vocational courses.

How did Jose approach his work in the first days at Ateneo?

Jose systematized his work by creating a daily schedule and strictly following it to discipline his will and reason.

Who was the first professor that Jose had at Ateneo, and how is he described?

Jose's first professor was Fr. Jose Bech, described as a man of high stature, lean body, ascetic physiognomy, and sharp features.

What were some of the arts and disciplines introduced in the Jesuitical system?

The Jesuitical system introduced music, drawing, painting, physical culture, agriculture, commerce, and mechanics.

How did Jose's first professor, Fr. Jose Bech, behave towards his students?

Fr. Jose Bech was described as sometimes hard and intolerant, and at other times gay and playful like a child.

What was the principal purpose of the Jesuitical system in molding boys' character?

The principal purpose was to make boys comply more easily with the teachings of the Church.

What obstacles did Leonor and Rizal face in their relationship?

Leonor's parents disapproved of their relationship and were wary of Rizal being a 'filibuster.'

How did Rizal refer to Leonor in his letters to hide her identity?

Rizal called Leonor 'Taimis' in his letters.

Why did Rizal's brother, Paciano Rizal, disagree with the idea of Rizal marrying Leonor?

Paciano Rizal believed it would be unfair to Leonor if Rizal were to leave her behind after getting married.

What happened to their love letters?

Many of their love letters were intercepted and kept hidden by Leonor's mother.

Who did Leonor get engaged to in 1890?

Leonor got engaged to a British engineer named Henry Kipping.

How did Rizal react when he heard of Leonor's death?

Rizal didn't speak for a few days when he heard of Leonor's death.

Study Notes

Scholastic Triumphs at Ateneo de Manila (1872-1877)

  • The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain and Europe, and were permitted to return to the Philippines and found colleges.
  • The Ateneo Municipal college was founded in 1865, and to enter, a candidate had to take an entrance examination on Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic.
  • Jose Rizal did not take the entrance examination, but his father decided to send him to the Ateneo instead of letting him return to his hometown to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint.
  • Jose adopted the second surname "Rizal" since "Mercado" was under suspicion by the authorities due to Paciano's association with Father Burgos.

The Jesuitical System

  • The Jesuitical system of instruction was considered advanced for its time, with a rigid discipline and less mechanical methods.
  • The system introduced physical culture, arts like music, drawing, and painting, as well as vocational courses in agriculture, commerce, and mechanics.
  • The principal purpose of the system was to mold the character and will of the boys to comply with the Church's percepts.

First Year in Ateneo

  • Jose's first professor was Fr. Jose Bech, who was described as a man of high stature with a severe and inspired physiognomy.
  • Jose learned to systematize his work and discipline his will, and obtained marks of excellent in all subjects at the end of the term.

Fourth Year in Ateneo

  • In 1875, Jose became a boarder in Ateneo and befriended his professor Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez, who inspired him to write poetry and study harder.
  • Jose regarded Fr. Sanchez as a model of uprightness, earnestness, and love for the advancement of his students.

Last Year in Ateneo

  • Jose graduated on March 23, 1877, at the age of 16, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts and highest honors, but not as valedictorian.

Personal Life

  • Jose's first love was Segunda Katigbak, a 14-year-old girl from a wealthy clan in Lipa, whom he met at his grandmother's house in Trozo, Manila.
  • Jose would often see Segunda and draw sketches of her, but their love was not meant to be.
  • Jose later fell in love with Leonor Rivera, but their love was also thwarted by obstacles, including her parents' disapproval and his own departure for Europe.

Travel to Europe

  • Jose sailed to Europe on the Salvadora, and was impressed by Singapore's clean and beautiful scenery.
  • He then boarded the Djemnah, a French ship, and sailed to Barcelona, where he was initially unfavorably impressed but later changed his opinion.
  • Jose was welcomed by fellow Filipinos in Barcelona, who gave him a party at Café Plaza de Cataluña.

Literary Works

  • Jose wrote "El Amor Patrio" in June 1882, which was published in the Diariong Filipino newspaper in August 1882.
  • He also wrote an article for Revista De Madrid in November 1882, but it was returned to him due to lack of funds.

Explore the educational journey of the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal, during his fourth and last year at Ateneo. Learn about his interactions with his professors and the influence they had on his life and studies.

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