Old English: Roman Invasion to Earliest Manuscripts
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Old English: Roman Invasion to Earliest Manuscripts

Explore the history of Old English, from the Roman invasion and Latin influence to the emergence of Celtic languages and the earliest manuscripts written in England. Learn about the role of various European tribes in shaping the language.

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@CourteousDogwood

Questions and Answers

What event in 410CE led to the decline of Latin in Britain?

Goths destroyed Rome, and remaining Romans withdrew from Britain.

What was the linguistic result of the Norse raiders' settlement in Northern and Eastern England?

They brought their language with them.

Which king played a significant role in establishing a sense of national identity in England?

King Alfred the Great

What was the linguistic consequence of the Norman Conquest of 1066CE?

<p>Norman French became the ruling class language, and approximately 10,000 French words entered the English language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which dialect of Middle English emerged as the variety of written and spoken English used by the powerful governing bodies?

<p>The London dialect</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the defining characteristic of Early Modern English?

<p>It is a tool, adapted as required by its users.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What significant event occurred in 1476 CE that helped standardize spelling, punctuation, and the system of writing in Early Modern English?

<p>William Caxton introduced the first printing press into England.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significance of Samuel Johnson's publication in 1755 CE?

<p>Samuel Johnson published his Dictionary of the English Language, which recorded language as it was used at that time.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the Great Vowel Shift, and when did it occur?

<p>The Great Vowel Shift was a change in pronunciation that took place towards the end of Middle English and continued for approximately 200 years.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the result of the Great Vowel Shift on English pronunciation?

<p>The pronunciation of vowels, particularly long vowels, changed.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What contributed to the changes in pronunciation during the Great Vowel Shift?

<p>The movement of people to the south-east of England and a desire to sound different from the ruling classes.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of William Tyndale's translation and the Authorised King James Version of the Bible in the development of Early Modern English?

<p>They introduced many new words and idioms into the English language and helped establish the prestige of the English language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did Shakespeare's works contribute to the development of Early Modern English?

<p>He introduced over 1700 words and linguistic variations, such as changing nouns into verbs.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English?

<p>The lexis has expanded in response to industrial and social developments as well as colonialism.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did the discovery of America and contact with other countries influence the development of Early Modern English?

<p>New words were invented or adapted from other languages such as Italian and French to describe new ideas and practices.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the printing press in the development of Early Modern English?

<p>It helped to standardize spelling, punctuation, and the system of writing, making the printed word more widely available.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What term is used to describe the varieties of English used by those who are living?

<p>Present Day English (PDE)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the need for during the industrial developments of the 18th and 19th centuries?

<p>New words for things that had not existed previously</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which areas did thousands of new words emerge during the Industrial Revolution?

<p>Many different areas, including fashion, food, leisure, medicine, and chemistry</p> Signup and view all the answers

What theory recognises that language is used to function in everyday life?

<p>Functional Theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approach of Functional Theory towards lexis?

<p>Descriptivist</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the process of learning new information, specifically language, through engagement and socialisation with others in society?

<p>Cultural learning</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Cultural Transmission Theory, why does language change occur?

<p>When individuals and groups perceive a benefit in a change</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of language change occurring due to the perception of a benefit?

<p>The change in language used on the internet</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the direction of transmission in Cultural Transmission Theory?

<p>One-way, from the pre-existing generation of society to the emerging</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of infants quickly picking up languages exposed to them?

<p>It highlights the effectiveness of language learning in environments where understandings of the language are the same</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main limitation of the Cultural Transmission Theory in explaining language change?

<p>It does not cover all methods of learning, such as trial and error, and cannot account for the variety of language that may be formed from it.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main idea behind Charles Hockett's Random Fluctuation Theory?

<p>Languages change as a result of the uneven use of spoken language, with people favouring one way of pronouncing words over others.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main concept behind the Substratum Theory of language change?

<p>Language change occurs due to the influence of one variety of language on another through contact.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between the Substratum Theory and borrowing?

<p>In the Substratum Theory, the language does not simply gain new lexis, but changes its existing forms.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main idea behind the Theory of Lexical Gaps?

<p>New words can be created through the combination of existing sounds and letters, filling gaps in the language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between the Wave Model and the Tree Model of language change?

<p>The Wave Model focuses on the geographical and social spread of language features, while the Tree Model focuses on the linguistic relationships between languages.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of Latin in the context of language change?

<p>Latin is the proto-language for the Romance languages, including French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, and Romanian.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main strength of the Substratum Theory in explaining language change?

<p>It highlights the importance of language contact and globalisation in shaping language change.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main limitation of the Random Fluctuation Theory in explaining language change?

<p>It is regarded as too general for close analysis, as it presumes that everyone is trying to speak in the same way.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of William Labov's study of Jewish communities in New York?

<p>It provides evidence for the Substratum Theory, showing how language change occurs through language contact and globalisation.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the common proto-language that English, German, Dutch, and other Germanic languages have evolved from?

<p>Proto-Germanic</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between the Tree Model and the Wave Model in linguistics?

<p>The Tree Model assumes languages change by splitting from a common core, while the Wave Model proposes that languages evolve from one disturbance or change, spreading outward.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the S-curve Model of language change, and how does it describe the adoption of new language features?

<p>The S-curve Model proposes that language changes begin slowly, accelerate as more speakers adopt them, and eventually level off, with the rate of adoption following an S-shaped curve.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main debate discussed in Jean Aitchison's book 'Language Change: Progress or Decay?'?

<p>The debate is whether language change stems from the creation of new forms ('progress') or the decline of old forms ('decay').</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main idea of Guy Deutscher's book 'The Unfolding of Language'?

<p>Deutscher's book explores how language change arises from a combination of the human mind's craving for order and the need to find regularity, as well as the instinct to be expressive and innovative.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the internet and mass media impact language change, according to the text?

<p>Language change has sped up dramatically with the advent of the internet and mass media.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between the prescriptive and descriptive approaches to language?

<p>The prescriptive approach sees a 'gold standard' of English that should be preserved, while the descriptive approach sees English as evolving to accommodate the needs of its users.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Substratum Theory, as mentioned in Guy Deutscher's book?

<p>It is not explicitly mentioned in the text, but the Substratum Theory suggests that a language's grammar and vocabulary are influenced by the grammar and vocabulary of the languages spoken by the people who adopted it.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the 'Tree Model' in linguistics?

<p>The Tree Model assumes that languages change by splitting from a common core, similar to a family tree.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the concept of pidgin and creole languages challenge the Tree Model of language change?

<p>Pidgin and creole languages are examples of languages that mix and blend, rather than splitting from a common core, which challenges the Tree Model's assumption of language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary focus of Basil Bernstein's theory of restricted and elaborated codes, and how does it relate to educational achievement?

<p>The primary focus of Bernstein's theory is to link language with educational achievement, suggesting that individuals who use a more in-depth language are more likely to succeed academically.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the key characteristics of elaborated code, and how does it differ from restricted code?

<p>Elaborated code is characterized by accurate and varied grammatical order, complex sentences, and unusual and varied lexis, whereas restricted code is marked by simple and short sentences, limited lexis, and hesitancy.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the evidence that supports the existence of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD)?

<p>The stages of language development occur at roughly the same times in children, children's language development follows a similar pattern across cultures, and deaf children who have not been exposed to a spoken language may make up their own language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of Bernstein's theory in the context of education, and how does it impact certain groups of children?

<p>Bernstein's theory suggests that children who are not exposed to both restricted and elaborated codes may be at a disadvantage in educational settings, particularly in language-based subjects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the concept of co-evolution, as proposed by Noam Chomsky, and how does it relate to language development?

<p>Co-evolution refers to the idea that languages and their varieties evolve as their speakers do, and that language must change to remain effective for its users.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the critical period for native language acquisition?

<p>From birth to puberty is considered a sensitive time for acquisition of a native language.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the concept of the Language Acquisition Device (LAD) according to Chomsky's theory?

<p>The LAD is an innate module of the mind that provides an innate capacity for language acquisition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the seven functions of language, as identified by Michael Halliday, and how do they relate to child language acquisition?

<p>The seven functions of language are instrumental, regulatory, interactional, and four others, and they are essential for children to acquire language skills in their early years.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Halliday's Functional Theory of language relate to the concept of co-evolution, and what are the implications for language development?

<p>Halliday's Functional Theory suggests that language evolves to meet the needs of its users, which is closely tied to the concept of co-evolution, and implies that language is constantly changing to remain effective.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the conclusion that can be drawn from the study of Jim, a child of deaf parents?

<p>The LAD itself was not enough for Jim to learn to speak, suggesting that the LAD is not sufficient to explain language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the study of Genie?

<p>The study of Genie supports the idea of a critical period for native language acquisition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of Bernstein's theory of restricted and elaborated codes in the context of contemporary education, and what are the implications for teaching and learning?

<p>Bernstein's theory remains relevant in contemporary education, highlighting the importance of exposure to both restricted and elaborated codes to support academic achievement.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the argument of Harry Ritchie against Chomsky's LAD?

<p>Ritchie argues that there is no innate programming for language acquisition and that children learn language through experience.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does the concept of co-evolution, as proposed by Noam Chomsky, relate to the development of language varieties and dialects?

<p>The concept of co-evolution suggests that language varieties and dialects evolve as their speakers do, and that language must change to remain effective for its users.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the implications of Bernstein's theory of restricted and elaborated codes for our understanding of language and educational achievement?

<p>Bernstein's theory suggests that language is a critical factor in educational achievement, and that exposure to both restricted and elaborated codes is essential for academic success.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the subject-verb form of grammar in language acquisition?

<p>The subject-verb form of grammar is common to all languages and children seem to be aware of this structure even when they make up their own languages.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Halliday's Functional Theory of language relate to the concept of language acquisition, and what are the implications for language development?

<p>Halliday's Functional Theory suggests that language evolves to meet the needs of its users, and that language acquisition is a critical process in shaping human society and relationships.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of experience in language acquisition according to Ritchie?

<p>Children learn language just as they learn all their other skills, by experience.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the studies of feral children in language acquisition?

<p>The studies of feral children, such as Jim and Genie, provide insights into the limitations of the theory of the LAD.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the importance of the sensitive period in language acquisition?

<p>During the sensitive period, language learning might be more successful.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of language according to the 'Here I am!' function?

<p>To express personal opinions, feelings, and identity of the speaker</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between the behaviourist theory and the innate language competence theory?

<p>The behaviourist theory suggests that language is acquired through conditioning and imitation, while the innate language competence theory suggests that humans have an innate ability to learn language</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the heuristic function of language?

<p>To explore the world and to learn and discover</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children correct their own language according to the criticism of the behaviourist theory?

<p>Children correct their own language to a standard form even when adults do not correct them</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the environment in language acquisition according to the behaviourist theory?

<p>The environment plays a strong influence in shaping the language that children acquire</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of Noam Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device (LAD) theory?

<p>It suggests that humans have an innate ability to learn language, and children are born with an instinct for a universal grammar</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main strength of Skinner's work on language acquisition?

<p>It generated early ideas about the process of language development from which other theorists developed further ideas</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the representational function of language?

<p>To exchange, relay, or request information</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do children use language to learn according to the heuristic function?

<p>Through questions and answers, or running commentary that frequently accompanies children's play</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the imaginative function of language?

<p>It allows children to explore their imagination and create imaginary worlds through language</p> Signup and view all the answers

What limitations of Chomsky's LAD did Jerome Bruner address with his Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)?

<p>Lack of interaction with environment, assumption of innate language development, no evidence of language device in the brain, no active role of child in language acquisition, and neglect of child's social world.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did studies of deprived and feral children contradict Chomsky's LAD?

<p>These studies showed that language does not develop automatically in the absence of language stimulation, contradicting the idea of innate language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between Chomsky's LAD and Bruner's LASS?

<p>LAD assumes innate language development with no role for the child, whereas LASS emphasizes the importance of social interaction, active learning, and environmental stimulation in language acquisition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

How does Bruner's LASS account for the child's active role in language acquisition?

<p>LASS suggests that children are active learners who engage with their environment and social world to acquire language, contradicting the LAD's assumption of passive language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Bruner's LASS imply about the relationship between language and the child's social world?

<p>LASS implies that language acquisition is deeply rooted in the child's social world, and that social interaction plays a crucial role in shaping language development.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Old English (43CE - 700CE)

  • Roman Invasion of England introduced Latin lexis
  • After Romans withdrew from Britain, Latin was replaced by languages of invading tribes: Picts, Scots, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians
  • Celtic tribes retreated to Wales (Welsh Language) and Ireland and Scotland (Gaelic language)

Old English (700CE - 1066CE)

  • Earliest manuscripts written in Old English, merging dialects of invading tribes
  • Norse raiders from Denmark and Norway settled in Northern and Eastern England, introducing their language
  • King Alfred the Great defeated Norse raiders, establishing Anglo-Saxon dominance and national identity

Middle English (1066CE - 1500CE)

  • Norman French became the ruling class language after William of Normandy's conquest of England
  • Old English survived amongst peasantry
  • Over 10,000 French words entered English language over the next 200 years
  • Middle English emerged as a fusion of Norman French and Old English dialects

Early Modern English (1500CE - 1800CE)

  • William Caxton introduced the printing press, standardizing spelling, punctuation, and writing systems
  • Samuel Johnson published the Dictionary of the English Language, recording language as it was used at the time
  • Early Modern English lost some grammatical patterns of Old and Middle English, becoming more flexible
  • Writers enriched the English language with words drawn from Classical Latin and Greek, as well as European languages

The Great Vowel Shift

  • Pronunciation changes took place between 1400CE and 1700CE, altering long vowel sounds
  • Evidence from spelling and rhymes of the time help prove these changes in pronunciation

Late Modern English (1800CE - present)

  • Industrial Revolution and colonialism expanded the English language
  • New words were invented or adapted from other languages to describe new industrial and social developments
  • English language spread globally, borrowing extensively from languages of countries where English speakers settled and ruled

Theories of Language Change

  • Functional Theory (Michael Halliday): language change is driven by the needs of its users

  • Cultural Transmission Theory: language change occurs through social learning and cultural transmission

  • Random Fluctuation Theory (Charles Hockett): language change results from the uneven use of spoken language

  • Substratum Theory: language change is influenced by the spread of language and globalization

  • Theory of Lexical Gaps: new words emerge to fill gaps in the language

  • The Wave Model and Tree Model of Language Change: language change spreads from a source, either geographically or socially

  • The S-curve Model (Chen, 1968): language change begins slowly, accelerates, and eventually levels off

  • Progress or Decay? (Jean Aitchison, 1991): debate on whether language change is progress or decay

  • The Unfolding of Language (Guy Deutscher): language change results from the mind's craving for order and the instinctive need for regularity

  • Restricted and Elaborated Codes (Basil Bernstein): language codes that are suited for different contexts and purposes

  • Co-Evolution (Noam Chomsky): languages and varieties of languages evolve as their speakers do### Co-evolution of Language

  • Language evolves continuously, and its standard is never concrete, leading to perpetual evolution for both the speaker and the language.

Halliday's Functions of Language

  • Instrumental: Language used to fulfill a need, e.g., obtaining food, drink, and comfort.
  • Regulatory: Language used to influence the behavior of others, e.g., persuading, commanding, or requesting others to do things.
  • Interactional: Language used to develop social relationships, e.g., phatic communication, talk that has no informative value.
  • Personal: Language used to express personal opinions, feelings, and identity, also referred to as the 'Here I am!' function.
  • Representational: Language used to exchange, relay, or request information.
  • Heuristic: Language used to explore the world and learn, e.g., questions, answers, and running commentary during play.
  • Imaginative: Language used to explore the imagination, e.g., creating imaginary worlds or storytelling.

Imitation and Reinforcement Theory (B.F. Skinner)

  • Language is acquired via conditioning, where the child imitates sounds around them and receives praise and approval, leading to repetition and development of language.
  • Support for the theory: we learn to speak the language we grow up with and adopt the accents of those around us.
  • Criticism of the theory: children produce infinite utterances they've never heard before, make virtuous errors, and correct their language even when not corrected by adults.

Innate Language Competence - Language Acquisition Device (LAD) (Noam Chomsky)

  • The theory suggests that the human brain has an innate ability to learn language, a Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which allows children to develop skills.
  • Evidence for the LAD: language development occurs at roughly the same times in children, language development follows a similar pattern across cultures, and children acquire language quickly and effortlessly.
  • Criticism of the LAD: it may not be sufficient to explain language development, and recent evidence from neurology, genetics, and linguistics points to no innate programming.

Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) (Jerome Bruner)

  • The LAD has limitations, including not accounting for the interaction of the child with those around them and assuming that language develops automatically into the native language spoken around the child.
  • The LASS addresses these limitations by considering the interaction of the child with their environment and the importance of social interaction in language acquisition.

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